×
Stay dedicated because great things takes time.
--Your friends at LectureNotes
Close

Computer Communication Network

by Jayaprasad Km
Type: NoteInstitute: VTU Specialization: Electronics and Communication EngineeringDownloads: 266Views: 4016Uploaded: 5 months agoAdd to Favourite

Share it with your friends

Suggested Materials

References

5th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2016 ISBN: 1-25-906475-3

Leave your Comments

Contributors

Jayaprasad Km
Jayaprasad Km
INTRODUCTION, NETWORK MODELS, DATA LINK 15EC64 LAYER COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS [CCN] 15EC64 INTRODUCTION, NETWORK MODELS, DATA LINK LAYER MODULE 1 NOTES REFERENCE TEXT BOOK: Data Communication and Networking, Behrouz A. Forouzan; 5TH Edition Chapter 1, 2, 9 and 11 PREPARED BY : JAYAPRASAD K M EMAIL: jayaprasadkm@gmail.com LINKEDIN: www.linkedin.com/in/jayaprasadkm E L COMPUTER ECTRON COMMUNICATION I C S A N D CNETWORKS O M M U N I C A T I O N D E P A R TPage M E 1N T
MODULE 1 NOTES 15EC64 CONTENTS 1 2 3 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Data Communications 1.1.1 Components 1.1.2 Representations 1.1.3 Data Flow 1.2 Networks 1.2.1 Network Criteria 1.2.2 Physical Structures 1.3 Network types 1.3.1 LAN 1.3.2 WAN 1.3.3 Switching 1.3.4 Internet NETWORK MODELS 2.1 Protocol Layering 2.1.1 Scenarios 2.1.2 Principles of Protocol Layering 2.1.3 Logical Connections 2.2 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2.2.1 Layered Architecture 2.2.2 Layers in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2.2.3 Description of each layer 2.2.4 Encapsulation and Decapsulation 2.2.5 Addressing 2.2.6 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing 2.3 The OSI Model 2.3.1 OSI versus TCP/IP DATA LINK LAYER 3.1 Introduction to Data Link Layer 3.1.1. Nodes and Links 3.1.2 Services 3.1.3 Two Categories of Links 3.1.4 Two Sublayers 3.2 Link Layer Addressing 3.2.1 Three types of addresses 3.2.2 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) 3.2.3 An Example of Communication 3.3 Data Link Control(DLC) Services 3.3.1 Framing 3.3.2 Flow and Error Control 3.4 Data Link Layer Protocols 3.4.1 Simple Protocol 3.4.2 Stop-and-Wait Protocol 3.4.3 Piggy Backing COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS 2 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 14 14 15 17 20 22 22 22 25 26 26 27 29 30 34 36 36 37 38 40 40 41 42 45 45 45 48 49 53 57 57 61 63 64 66 69 Page 1
MODULE 1 NOTES 15EC64 PART 1 INTRODUCTION Data communications and networking have changed the way we do business and the way we live. Business decisions have to be made ever more quickly, and the decision makers require immediate access to accurate information. Why wait a week for that report from Europe to arrive by mail when it could appear almost instantaneously through computer networks? Businesses today rely on computer networks and internet- works. Data communication and networking have found their way not only through business and personal communication; they have found many applications in political and social issues. People have found how to communicate with other people in the world to express their social and political opinions and problems. Communities in the world are not isolated anymore. But before we ask how quickly we can get hooked up, we need to know how networks operate, what types of technologies are available, and which design best fills which set of needs 1.1 DATA COMMUNICATIONS The word data refers to information presented in whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating and using the data. Data communications are the exchange of data between two devices via some form of transmission medium such as a wire cable. For data communications to occur, the communicating devices must be part of a communication system made up of a combination of hardware (physical equipment) and software (programs). The effectiveness of a data communications system depends on four fundamental characteristics: delivery, accuracy, timeliness, and jitter. 1. Delivery. The system must deliver data to the correct destination. Data must be received by the intended device or user and only by that device or user. 2. Accuracy. The system must deliver the data accurately. Data that have been altered in transmission and left uncorrected are unusable. COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Page 2
MODULE 1 NOTES 15EC64 3. Timeliness. The system must deliver data in a timely manner. Data delivered late are useless. In the case of video and audio, timely delivery means delivering data as they are produced, in the same order that they are produced, and without significant delay. This kind of delivery is called real-time transmission. 4. Jitter. Jitter refers to the variation in the packet arrival time. It is the uneven delay in the delivery of audio or video packets. For example, let us assume that video packets are sent every 30 ms. If some of the packets arrive with 30-ms delay and others with 40 ms delay, an uneven quality in the video is the result. 1.1.1 Components A data communications system has five components (see Figure 1.1) Figure 1.1 Five components of data communication 1. Message. The message is the information (data) to be communicated. Popular forms of information include text, numbers, pictures, audio, and video. 2. Sender. The sender is the device that sends the data message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, video camera, and so on. 3. Receiver. The receiver is the device that receives the message. It can be a computer, workstation, telephone handset, television, and so on. 4. Transmission medium. The transmission medium is the physical path by which a message travels from sender to receiver. Some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, and radio waves. 5. Protocol. A protocol is a set of rules that govern data communications. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without a protocol, two devices may be connected but not communicating, just as a person speaking French cannot be understood by a person who speaks only Japanese COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS Page 3

Lecture Notes