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Internet Technologies and Applications

by Lingaraj Panigahy
Type: NoteInstitute: BPUT Specialization: Computer Science EngineeringDownloads: 155Views: 7107Uploaded: 5 months agoAdd to Favourite

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Internet Technologies and Applications by Lingaraj Panigahy

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Lingaraj Panigahy
Lingaraj Panigahy

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Lingaraj Panigahy
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Module-I Internet and its History: History: • In the late 1960,the US Department of Defense (DOD) became interested in using computer networks. • The US DOD founded a research agency known as Advance Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to do research on networking . • ARPA projects include a wide area network (WAN) called ARPANET , this was infact the first version of internet.(1969) • The main idea in the ARPA research was to develop a new approach to interconnect LANs and WANs .This interconnection was termed as inter-network that was abbreviated as internet in the later stage. Definition of Internet: • It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. • The term the Internet, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks, has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and popular culture a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without capitalization. Advantages of Internet: There are many advantages of internet which given as follows: (i) Information gathering (ii) Mode of communication (iii) Downloading Facility (iv) Transfer Files (v) Online Shopping (vi) Online Banking /Financial transaction (vii) Online reservation (viii) Online Examination (ix) Online job search (x) Promote company and goods Applications of Internet: Email,FTP,WWW: (i)Email: • • Email or Electronic mail is a peerless method of sending message ,notes or letters from one person to another or even many people at the same time via the internet. Email is very fast in compared to the normal post. Feature of Email: • • • • • One-to-one or one-to-many communication. Instant communications. Physical presence of recipients is not required. Encourages informal communication. There are different email protocols :Post Office Protocol(POP),Interactive Mail Access Protocol(IMAP),Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP) and Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension(MIME). LINGARAJ PANIGRAHY ITA Page 1
(ii)File Transfer Protocol: • • • File Transfer Protocol is an internet utility software used to upload and download files. It gives access to directories or folders or remote computers and allows software,data and text files to be transferred between different kinds of computers. Basic Objective of FTP: o To give flexibility and promote sharing of computer programs ,files and data. o To transfer data reliably and more efficiently over network. o To encourage implicit or indirect use of remote computers using internet. (iii)WWW: • The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. • The Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. • The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks. In contrast, the Web is one of the services that runs on the Internet. • All the information over the internet are represented through a web page. All these web pages are linked with each other or even to section within a web page and these links are known as HyperLinks. Internet Service Provider:(ISP) • An Internet service provider (ISP), also sometimes referred to as an Internet access provider (IAP), is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. • The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol packets or frames, such as dial-up, DSL(Digital Subscriber Line), cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects. Virtual ISP: A Virtual ISP (VISP) is an operation which purchases services from another ISP (sometimes called a "wholesale ISP" in this context) which allow the VISP's customers to access the Internet using services and infrastructure owned and operated by the wholesale ISP. IP Address: • • • • IP is the protocol that specifies how the internet packets are sent over the Internet. When a message is broken into datagrams before sending it onto the Internet, the local computer marks each datagram with both the source IP address and the destination IP address. To make them easier to read Ip addresses appear as four numbers separated by dots. This notation is called dotted decimal notation. Scince each of the four parts of a dotted decimal number can range from 0 to 255,IP address range from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. Domain Name Instead Of an IP Address: • • • The big number of IP addresses are difficult to remember by an individual or organization working on a machine. Therefore the customer use a specific domain name to address specific computer (Server) on the internet. Domain names can contain two or more word groups separated by dots. Example: www.computer.kku.edu.sa. The rightmost part of a domain or sometimes even two of the rightmost parts are called top level domains(or TLD) e.g edu.sa is the TLD in the above example. kku stands for King Khalid University,is LINGARAJ PANIGRAHY ITA Page 2
identified by the name kku and computer is the name of the specific computer or group of computers belonging to a department at that University. Finally the word “www” indicates that the computer which is treated as a web server is a part of World Wide Web. Uniform Resource Locator: A web object or web site can be located or accessed if the following three things are well defined: (i) A method of accessing and retrieving the object e.g an HTTP request and response (ii) A host which is hosting the object (iii)A path to the object’s location The combination of the protocol name and domain name is called a uniform resource locator as it allows the user to locate a resource e.g a web page on a web server. • The syntax is scheme://domain:port/path?query_string#fragment_id • Scheme is commonly called protocol. • Example: o • In order to see the syllabus of Biju Patnaik University Of Technology(BPUT),we can type http://bput.ac.in/syllabus.html. o It shows an html file namely syllabus.html under the URL of BPUT. o Also it implies that ‘ac.in’ means that the domain is an academic Institution in India. Other examples of scheme names include https:, gopher:, wais:, ftp E-mail Address: • • • • • E-mail address requires at least two things.i.e name and the address. An e-mail address identifies a location to which e-mail can be delivered. A modern Internet e-mail address (using SMTP) is a string of the form jsmith@domain.example. It should be read as "jsmith at domain dot example". The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name . Web server: (i)Overview: • • • • • A web server can be referred to as either the hardware (the computer) or the software (the computer application) that helps to deliver content that can be accessed through the Internet. A web server is what makes it possible to be able to access content like web pages or other data from anywhere as long as it is connected to the internet. The hardware houses the content, while the software makes the content accessible through the internet. The main job of a web server computer is to respond to the request from web client computers. The three main elements of a web server are the hardware e.g the computer and its related components i.e the operating system software and the web server software. (ii)Operating system for web server: Most web server use one of the following operating system such as :NET server, Windows NT server, Windows 2000 server, Windows 2003 server or LINUX/UNIX- based operating system. (iii)Web server Softwares: LINGARAJ PANIGRAHY ITA Page 3
(a)Apache HTTP Server: • • • • Apache web server was developed by Rob McCool in 1994. Apache web server is currently available on the web ,at no cost as an open source software. Apache runs on different operating system including FreeBSD UNIX, LINUX, Microsoft Windows, and salaries. Apache has build in search engine and HTML authoring tools. (b)Microsoft Internet Information Server: • • • Microsoft Internet Information Server(IIS) comes bundled with Microsoft Windows 2000 server operating systems. IIS as a Microsoft product was designed to run on the windows NT and 2000 operating systems. It can run on Windows XP operating system as well. Web Browsers: • • • • A web browser or Internet browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. A good browser should come with an easy to use ,customizable installation & setup routine. It should be facilitate viewing documents and files in various formats. For financial transaction it should support high security standard. Example :Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla firefox What do you mean by LAN and its characteristic ? LAN stands for Local Area Network. It is the interconnection of computers within a specified limited area. Characteristics of LAN: (a) Shared Device i.e resources © High data Transfer rate (b)Area is small (d)Low error rate Web Protocols: A protocol is a set of rules , that is use to communicate application to each other. In other words we can say that the protocol is the interface required for communicating the different applications. There are different types of protocols that are use in web ,theses are as follows: (i)HTTP (ii)TCP/IP (iii)FTP(File Transfer Protocol) (iv)E-mail Protocols (v)Telnet • • • TCP ,UDP maps to the transport layer IP maps to the network layer FTP,Telnet,WWW,e-mail,etc maps to the application Layer LINGARAJ PANIGRAHY ITA Page 4

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