Hazardous Waste Management
Industry like steel, petrochemical, non-ferrous, fertilizer, pesticide and detergent are generate
Biological : Those waste generate from hospital, operation theaters, nursing home, clinical
laboratory, biological research center etc. are called Medical Hazardous Waste or Bio – Medical
Waste. These are comes under Bio – Medical Waste rule, 1998. Ex : expire or absolute
medicine, infectious material like dressing cotton, pathological waste laboratory and operation
theaters like, sharp and pointed items like needle and blade, biological waste from human and
animal , biological waste from microbiological culture waste etc.
Flammable : These may be solid, gases and liquid from organic solvent, oil, organic sludge,
Explosive : These waste have high potential for hazard during collection, storage, transport and
available in solid, liquid and gaseous form. Ex : weapons manufacturing source and industrial
Radioactive : The substances that are emitting ionizing radiation are defined as radioactive
substance. These are hazard because of exposure, so handle with more care. It result of
damage the life supporting system of living organism and contaminate air, water, land and retain
over long time i.e contaminant both biotic and abiotic community. Natural sources – natural
occurring isotopes, cosmic ray from outer space etc. and manmade sources – nuclear weapon,
atomic reactor, fuel in nuclear power station, mining, refining of radio element and radio
isotopes ( I12 , C14 , P12 ). Control of natural sources is not possible but control of artificial
radioactive substance is possible by proper management. So manage (handle, storage, uses,
control, dispose) are highly specialized.
Source of Hazardous Waste :
Automobile – Cd, Pb, Ag, Zn, used battery, lubricant, grease, oil etc.
Metal fining Industry / Electro plating – Cr, Cu, Zn, Co
Chemical Dye / Paint – Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Cd, Co, Se
Leather – Cr, Organic
Pharmaceutical – As, Hg, trace organic
Agrochemical – Chloro Organic, Benzene, Pesticide, herbicide, Insecticide, fungicide etc.
Plastic – Co, Hg, Zn Organic
Textile – Cr, Cu, Organic
E – Waste – Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Co, Se Organic
Petrochemical/ Metallurgical/ Coal – Alkaline / Acid sludge with heavy metal, Cyanide, Fluoride, Phenolic
Note prepared by – Manas Ranjan Asa , Asst. Prof., OEC , BBSR