ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE BIRM 301 Study Material Prepared by: Dr Prabhu Prasadini Professor, Dept. of Environmental Science & Technology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar Dr G.Swarajya Lakshmi Professor and Univ. Head (Retired), Dept. of Environmental Science & Technology, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar
CONTENTS S.No. Chapter 1 Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies 2 Natural Resources 3 Biodiversity 4 Environmental Pollution 5 Nuclear Hazards and Waste management 6 Disaster management 7 Social issues and the Environment 8 Environmental acts 9 References Page No.
REFERENCES Anjaneyalu, Y. 2004. Introduction to Environmental Science. BS Publications, Hyderabad, A.P. India. Anji Reddy, M. Text book of Environmental Science and Technology, BS Publications, Hyderabad Benny Joseph. 2006. Environmental Science and Engineering, Tata Mc-Graw Hill Publishing Company, New Delhi. Cunningham, W.P., Cooper, T.H., Gorhani, E and Hepworth, M.T. 2001. Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ. House, Mumbai, 1196p. Down to earth published by Centre For Science And Environment. Erach Bharucha. 2005. Text book of Environmental Studies for undergraduate courses, University Grants Commission, New Delhi. Gupta, P.K. 2004. Methods in Environmental analysis –water, soil and air. Published by Agrobios (India), Jodhpur. Kaul, S.N. and Ashutosh Gautam. 2002. Principles of Environmental Studies. Daya Publishing house, New Delhi. Manoharachary, C. and P. Jayaramareddy 2009. Principles of environmental studies (ecology, economics, management and law), BS publications, Hyderabad. Sharma, R.C. and D. Gurbir Sangha 2006. Environmental studies. Kalyani publishers, New Delhi. Sushmitha Baskar and R.Baskar . 2007. Environmental studies for under graduate courses. Published by Unicon books, Delhi. Swarajya Lakshmi, G., Prabhu Prasadini, P., Ramesh Thatikunta and VNLV Tayaru. 2010. Environmental Science A Practical Manual, BS publications, Hyderabad Vidyasagar R and Prabhu Prasadini 2008. Objective Questions and Glossary in Environmental Science, BS publications, Hyderabad. Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org Multidisciplinary nature of Environmental Studies The word environment is derived from the French verb ‘environner’ which means to ‘encircle or surround’. Thus our environment can be defined as the physical, chemical and biological world that surround us as well as the complex of social and cultural conditions affecting an individual or community. This broad definition includes the natural world and the technological environment as well as the cultural and social contexts that shape human lives. It includes all factors living and nonliving that affect an individual organism or population at any point in the life cycle; set of circumstances surrounding a particular occurrence and all the things that surrounds us. Objective of this course is to develop concern for our own environment which will lead us to act at our own leve l to protect the environment we all live in. There are three reasons for studying the state of the environment. The first, is the need for information that clarifies modern environmental concepts like equitable use of natural
resources, more sustainable life styles etc. Second, there is a need to change the way in which we view our own environment, using practical approach based on observation and self learning. Third, there is a need to create a concern for our environment that will trigger pro-environmental action, including simple activities we can do in our daily life to protect it. Environmental science is essentially the application of scientific methods and principles to the study of environmental issues, so it has probably been around in some forms as long as science itself. Environmental science is often confused with other fields of related interest, especially ecology, environmental studies, environmental education and environmental engineering. Environmental science is not constrained with any one discipline and it is a comprehensive field. Environmental science is not ecology though that discipline may be included. Ecologists are interested in the interactions between some kind of organisms and its surroundings. Most ecological research and training does not focus on environmental problems except as those problems impact the organism of interest. Environmental scientists may or may not include organisms on their field of view. They mostly focus on the environmental problem which may be purely physical in nature. For eg. Acid deposition can be studied as a problem of emissions and characteristic of the atmosphere without necessarily examining its impact on organisms. There are two types of environments: 1. Natural environment 2. Man made environment Natural: The environment in its original form without the interference of human beings is known as natural environment. It operates through self regulating mechanism called homeostasis i.e, any change in the natural ecosystem brought about by natural processes is counter balanced by changes in other components of environment. Man made or Anthropogenic Environment: The environment changed or modified by the interference of human beings is called man made environment. Man is the most evolved creature on this earth. He is modifying the environment according to his requirements without bothering for its consequences. Increased technologies and population explosion are deteriorating the environment more and more. Scope of environmental studies: Because, the environment is complex and actually made up of many different environments, including natural, constructed and cultural environments, environmental studies is the inter disciplinary examination of how biology, geology, politics policy studies, law, geology, religion engineering, chemistry and economics combine to inform the consideration of humanity’s effects on the natural world. This subject educates the students to appreciate the complexity of environmental issues and citizens and experts in many fields. By studying environmental science, students may develop a breadth of the interdisciplinary and methodological knowledge in the environmental fields that enables them to facilitate the definition and solution of environmental problems.