3. Leadership and decision making concept
According to this concept, management is the art and science of preparing, organizing, directing
human efforts applied to control the forces and utilize the materials of nature for the benefits
According to this concept, "management is an art and science of decision-making and
leadership." Most of the time of managers is consumed in taking decisions. Achievement of
objects depends on the quality of decisions. Similarly, production and productivity both can be
increased by efficient leadership only. Leadership provides efficiency, coordination and
continuity in an organization. Leadership and decision-making concept as given by some
authors is given below:
I. Donald J. Clough, "Management is the art and science of decision-making and leadership".
II. Ralph, C. Davix, "Management is the function of executive leadership anywhere."
III. F.W. Taylor, "Management implies substitution of exact scientific investigation and
knowledge for the old individual judgment or opinion, in all matters in the establishment."
4. Productive concept
According to this concept, management may be defined as the art of securing maximum
prosperity with a minimum effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both
employer n employee and provide best services thereby.
According to this concept, "Management is an art of increasing productivity."
Economists treat management as an important factor of production. According to them,
"Management is also a factor of production like land, labor, capital and enterprise." The main
followers of this concept of management are John F. Mee, Marry Cushing Niles, F.W. Taylor etc.
The productivity concept, as given by the authors is given below:
I. Jon, F. Mee, "Management may be defined as the art of securing maximum prosperity with a
minimum of effort so as to secure maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and
employee and give the public the best possible service."
II. F. W. Taylor, "Management is the art of knowing what you want to do in the best and
III. Marry Cushing Niles, "Good management achieves social objectives with the best use of
human and material energy and time and with satisfaction of the participants and the public.
5. Integration concept
According to this concept, management is the coordination of human and material resources
towards the achievement of organizational objectives as well as the organization of the
productive functions essential for achieving stated or accepted economic goal.
6. Universality concept
According to this concept, "Management is universal". Management is universal in the sense
that it is applicable anywhere whether social, religious or business and industrial. The followers
of this concept are Henry Fayol, Lawrence A. Appley, F.W. Taylor, Theo Haimann etc.
I. Henry Fayol, "Management is an universal activity which is equally applicable in all types of
organization whether social, religious or business and industrial".
II. Megginson, "Management is management, whether it is in Lisbon, or in London or in Los
III.Theo Haimann, "Management principles are universal. It may be applied to any kind of
enterprises, where the human efforts are coordinated."