OUTPUT PRIMITIVES 9
Basic − Line − Curve and ellipse drawing algorithms − Attributes − Two-Dimensional geometric
transformations − Two-Dimensional clipping and viewing –Input techniques.
Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science and is concerned with digitally synthesizing and
manipulating visual content. Although the term often refers to three-dimensional computer graphics, it
also encompasses two-dimensional graphics and image processing
Today, we find computer graphics used routinely in such diverse areas as science, engineering, medicine,
business, industry, government, art, entertainment, advertising, education, and training.
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN
A major use of computer graphics is in design processes, particularly for engineering and architectural
systems, but almost all products are now computer designed. Generally referred to as CAD, computeraided design methods are now routinely used in the design of buildings, automobiles, aircraft, watercraft,
spacecraft, computers, textiles, and many, many other products.
Another major application area is presentation graphics, used to produce illustrations for reports or to
generate 35-mm slides or transparencies for use with projectors. Presentation graphics is commonly
used to summarize financial, statistical, mathematical, scientific, and economic data for research reports,
managerial reports, consumer information bulletins, and other types of reports. Workstation devices and
service bureaus exist for converting screen displays into 35-mm slides or overhead transparencies for
use in presentations.
Typical examples of presentation graphics are bar charts, line graphs, surface graphs, pie charts, and
other displays showing relationships between multiple parameters.
Computer graphics methods are widely used in both fine art and commercial art applications. Artists use
a variety of computer methods, including special-purpose hardware, artist's paintbrush (such as Lumens),
other paint packages (such as Pixelpaint and Superpaint),.
Scientists, engineers, medical personnel, business analysts, and others often need to analyze large
amounts of information or to study the behavior of certain processes. Numerical simulations carried out
on supercomputers frequently produce data files containing thousands and even millions of data values..
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
It is common now for software packages to provide a graphical interface. A major component of a
graphical interface is a window manager that allows a user to display multiple-window areas. Each
window can contain a different process that can contain graphical or nongraphical displays. To make a
particular window active, we simply click in that window using an interactive pointing device.Interfaces
also display menus and icons for fast selection of processing options or parameter values.
VIDEO DISPLAY DEVICES
Typically, the primary output device in a graphics system is a video monitor The operation of most
video monitors is based on the standard cathode-ray tube (CRT) design.