Computer technology has gone through five generations of development, each spanning
at 10 to 20 years. By the start of 1990s, the use of HPC and HTC systems has skyrocketed. These use clusters, grids, Internet and clouds.
The general trend is to control shared web resources and massive data over the Internet.
In the above figure 1.1, we can observe the evolution of HPC and HTC systems.
NOTE: HPC contains super computers which are gradually replaced by clusters of intercooperating systems that share the data among them. A cluster is a collection of
homogeneous computers, which are physically connected.
HTC shows the formation of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks for distributed file sharing and
apps. A P2P system is built over many client machines and is globally distributed. This
leads to formation of computational grids or data grids.
1.7 High Performance Computing (HPC): HPC stressed upon the speed performance. The
speed of HPC systems has increased from Gflops to Pflops (FLOP=> Floating Point
Operations Per Second) these days, driven by the requirements from different fields like
science, engineering, medicine and others . The systems that generally have high
speed are super computers, main frames and other servers.
It should be noted here that the number of users (in HPC) is limited – less than 10% of
all the users. The majority of the market now uses servers, PCs or mobile devices that
conduct Internet searches and other assigned tasks.
1.8 High Throughput Computing: The market-oriented computing is now going through a
strategic change from HPC to HTC paradigm (concept). HTC concentrates more on
high-flux computing (ex: Internet searches, web apps used by many users
simultaneously). The performance goal has shifted from speed of the device to the
number of tasks completed per unit of time (throughput).
HTC needs not only to improve the speed but also to solve other problems like time
availability, cost, security and reliability.
1.9 New Computing Concepts: It can be seen from Figure 1.1that SOA (Software Oriented
Architecture) has made the web services available for all tasks. The Internet Clouds have
become a major factor to consider for all types of tasks. Three new paradigms have come
(a) Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID): This uses electro-magnetic fields to
automatically identify and track tags attached to objects . These tags contain
electronically stored information.
(b) Global Positioning System (GPS): It is a global navigation satellite system that
provides the geographical location and time information to a GPS receiver .
(c) Internet of Things (IoT): It is the internetworking of different physical devices
(vehicles, buildings etc.) embedded with electronic devices (sensors), software, and
network connectivity . Data can be collected and exchanged through this network
1.10 Computing Paradigm Distinctions:
(a) Centralized Computing: All computer resources like processors, memory and
storage are centralized in one physical system. All of these are shared and interconnected and monitored by the OS.
(b) Parallel Computing: All processors are tightly coupled with centralized shared
memory or loosely coupled with distributed memory (parallel processing). Inter