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- Digital Signal Processing - DSP
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**Anna university - gtec**- Electronics and Communication Engineering
- B.Tech
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www.Vidyarthiplus.com UNIT I SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS Signal: Signal is a function of one or more independent variables which contain some information. System: A system is a set of elements or functional block that are connected together and produces an output in response to an input signal. Processing: Operations performed by the system on the signal is called processing. Types of signal processing: 1.Analog signal processing. 2.Digital signal processing. In this processing input signal,output signal and the Analog signal processing: system are all analog in nature. Digital signal processing: Dsp is the processing of signals by digital systems.Input and output signals are also digital in nature. Basic elements of Digital signal processing: www.Vidyarthiplus.com

www.Vidyarthiplus.com ADC: It converts analog input to digital input. Digital Signal processor: It performs amplification,attenuation,filtering,spectral analysis,feature extraction etc operations on digital data. DAC: Some of the processed signals are required back in the analog form.So we use DAC to convert digital output to its analog equivalent. Advant ages of Dsp over Anlog signal processing: 1.Flexibility. 2.Accuracy. 3.Easy storage. 4.Mathematical processing. 5.Cost. Applications: 1.Speech processing. 2.Telecommunication. 3.Biomedical Engineering. 4.Instrumentation Types of signals based on time: 1.Continuous time signals. 2.Discrete time signals. Continuous time signals: www.Vidyarthiplus.com

www.Vidyarthiplus.com Continuous time or analog signals are signals that are defined for every value of a < t < b, where (a, b) can be ( -¥, + ¥ ), i.e., x (t) = e-|t| or x(t) = cos(pt). . Frequency concept in continuous time signal: Discrete time signal: Discrete-time signals are defined at discrete-time instants and between the two discrete time instants are undefined but are not zero. They can be obtained either by sampling analog signals or they can be discrete in nature like discrete measurement signals. A discrete-time signal having a set of discrete values is called a digital signal. Note that sampling an analog signal produces a discrete-time signal. Then quantization of its values produces a digital signal. Thus, the sequence values x(0) to x(N - 1) may often be considered to be the elements of a column vector as follows: Discrete-time signals are often derived by sampling a c ontinuous-time signal, such as speech, with an analogto-digital (A/D) converter) For example, a continuoustime signal x,(t) that is sampled at a rate of fs = l/Ts samples per second produces the sampled signal x(n), which is related to xa(t) as follows: x(n)=x0 (nTs) www.Vidyarthiplus.com

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