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S K Mondal’s
Fluid Mechanics
and Fluid Machines
Contents
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Chapter
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1: Properties of Fluids
2: Pressure and Its Measurements
3: Hydrostatic Forces on Surfaces
4: Buoyancy and Flotation
5: Fluid Kinematics
6: Fluid Dynamics
7: Dimensional & Model Analysis
8: Boundary Layer Theory
9: Laminar Flow
10: Turbulent Flow in Pipes
11: Flow Through Pipes
12: Flow Through Orifices and Mouthpieces
13: Flow Over Notches and Weirs
14: Flow Around Submerged Bodies-Drag and Lift
15: Compressible Flow
16: Flow Through Open Channel
17: Force Exerted on Surfaces
18: Hydraulic Turbine
19: Centrifugal Pump
20: Reciprocating Pumps
21: Miscellaneous Hydraulic Machines
Er. S K Mondal
IES Officer (Railway), GATE topper, NTPC ET-2003 batch, 12 years teaching
experienced, Author of Hydro Power Familiarization (NTPC Ltd)
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Note
If you think there should be a change in
option, don’t change it by yourself send me a
mail
at
swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in
I will send you complete explanation.
Copyright © 2007 S K Mondal
Every effort has been made to see that there are no errors (typographical or otherwise) in the
material presented. However, it is still possible that there are a few errors (serious or
otherwise). I would be thankful to the readers if they are brought to my attention at the
following e-mail address: swapan_mondal_01@yahoo.co.in
S K Mondal
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S K Mondal’s
1.
Properties of Fluids
Chapter 1
Pr oper ties of Fluids
Contents of this chapter
1. Definition of Fluid
2. Characteristics of Fluid
3. Ideal and Real Fluids
4. Viscosity
5. Units of Viscosity
6. Kinematic Viscosity
7. Units of Kinematic Viscosity
8. Classification of Fluids
9. Effect of Temperature on Viscosity
10.
Effect of Pressure on Viscosity
11.
Surface Tension
12.
Pressure Inside a Curved Surface
13.
Capillarity
14.
Derive the Expression for Capillary Rise
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S K Mondal’s
Properties of Fluids
Chapter 1
Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU)
Definition of Fluid
A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external
shearing forces.
Characteristics of Fluid
1.
It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing
vessel.
2.
Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo
a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied.
3.
It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear
forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i.e. it flows under similar
circumstances.
Concept of Continuum
The concept of continuum is a kind of idealization of the continuous description of
matter where the properties of the matter are considered as continuous functions
of space variables. Although any matter is composed of several molecules, the
concept of continuum assumes a continuous distribution of mass within the matter
or system with no empty space, instead of the actual conglomeration of separate
molecules.
Describing a fluid flow quantitatively makes it necessary to assume that flow
variables (pressure, velocity etc.) and fluid properties vary continuously from one
point to another. Mathematical descriptions of flow on this basis have proved to be reliable
and treatment of fluid medium as a continuum has firmly become established.
For example density at a point is normally defined as
Here Δ is the volume of the fluid element and m is the mass
If Δ is very large ρ is affected by the inhomogeneities in the fluid medium.
Considering another extreme if Δ is very small, random movement of atoms (or
molecules) would change their number at different times. In the continuum
approximation point density is defined at the smallest magnitude of Δ , before
statistical fluctuations become significant. This is called continuum limit and is
denoted by Δ c.
One of the factors considered important in determining the validity of continuum
model is molecular density. It is the distance between the molecules which is
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