COMPUTER ORGANIZATION (Common to CSE & ISE) Subject Code: 10CS46 Hours/Week : 04 Total Hours : 52 I.A. Marks : 25 Exam Hours: 03 Exam Marks: 100 PART – A UNIT - 1 6 Hours Basic Structure of Computers: Computer Types, Functional Units, Basic Operational Concepts, Bus Structures, Performance – Processor Clock, Basic Performance Equation, Clock Rate, Performance Measurement, Historical Perspective Machine Instructions and Programs: Numbers, Arithmetic Operations and Characters, Memory Location and Addresses, Memory Operations, Instructions and Instruction Sequencing, UNIT - 2 7 Hours Machine Instructions and Programs contd.: Addressing Modes, Assembly Language, Basic Input and Output Operations, Stacks and Queues, Subroutines, Additional Instructions, Encoding of Machine Instructions UNIT - 3 6 Hours Input/Output Organization: Accessing I/O Devices, Interrupts – Interrupt Hardware, Enabling and Disabling Interrupts, Handling Multiple Devices, Controlling Device Requests, Exceptions, Direct Memory Access, Buses UNIT - 4 7 Hours Input/Output Organization contd.: Interface Circuits, Standard I/O Interfaces – PCI Bus, SCSI Bus, USB PART – B UNIT - 5 7 Hours Memory System: Basic Concepts, Semiconductor RAM Memories, Read Only Memories, Speed, Size, and Cost, Cache Memories – Mapping Functions, Replacement Algorithms, Performance Considerations, Virtual Memories, Secondary Storage UNIT - 6 7 Hours Arithmetic: Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers, Design of Fast Adders, Multiplication of Positive Numbers, Signed Operand Multiplication, Fast Multiplication, Integer Division, Floating-point Numbers and Operations UNIT - 7 6 Hours Basic Processing Unit: Some Fundamental Concepts, Execution of a Complete Instruction, Multiple Bus Organization, Hard-wired Control, Microprogrammed Control UNIT - 8 6 Hours Multicores, Multiprocessors, and Clusters: Performance, The Power Wall, The Switch from Uniprocessors to Multiprocessors, Amdahl’s Law, Shared Memory Multiprocessors, Clusters and other Message Passing Multiprocessors, Hardware Multithreading, SISD, IMD, SIMD, SPMD, and Vector. Text Books: 1. 2. Deepa K S Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic, Safwat Zaky: Computer Organization, 5 th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, 2002. (Listed topics only from Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7) David A. Patterson, John L. Hennessy: Computer Organization and Design – The Hardware / Software Interface ARM Edition, 4th Edition, Elsevier, 2009.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1: BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS 1-14 UNIT 2: MACHINE INSTRUCTIONS & PROGRAMS(CONT.) 15-30 UNIT 3: INPUT/OUTPUT ORGANIZATION 31-42 UNIT 6: ARITHMETIC 43-56 UNIT 7: BASIC PROCESSING UNIT 57-73 Deepa K S
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION UNIT 1: BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS TYPES OF COMPUTERS Desktop Computers • These are most commonly used computers in home, schools and offices. • This has → processing- & storage-units → video & audio output-units → keyboard & mouse input-units. Notebook Computers (Laptops) • This is a compact version of a personal-computer(PC) made as a portable-unit. Workstations • These have more computational-power than PC. • These are used for business data-processing. • These have large computational-power and larger storage-capacity than workstations. • These are referred to as → server at low-end and → super-computers at high end. Servers • These have large database storage-units and can also execute requests from other computers. • These are used in banks & educational institutions. • These are used for very complex numerical-calculations. • These are used in weather forecasting, aircraft design and military applications. Deepa K S