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Note for Thermodynamics - TD by Nawab Masid

  • Thermodynamics - TD
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  • Mechanical Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 9 Topics
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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS 15ME33 PART-B UNIT - 5 Entropy: Clasius inequality; Statement, proof, application to a reversible cycle. Entropy; definition, a property, change of entropy, principle of increase in entropy, entropy as a quantitative test for irreversibility, calculation of entropy using Tds relations, entropy as a coordinate. Available and unavailable energy. 06 Hours UNIT - 6 Pure Substances: P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Subcooled liquid, saturated liquid, mixture of saturated liquid and vapour, saturated vapour and superheated vapour states of pure substance with water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat). Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams. Steam tables and its use. Throttling calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter. 07 Hours UNIT - 7 Thermodynamic relations: Maxwell relation, Clausius Clayperon's equation. Ideal gas; equation of state, internal energy and enthalpy as functions of temperature only, universal and particular gas constants, specific heats, perfect and semi-perfect gases. Evaluation of heat, work, change in internal energy. enthalpy and entropy in various quasi-static processes. 07 Hours UNIT - 8 Ideal gas mixture : Ideal gas mixture; Dalton's laws of partial pressures, Amagat's law of additive volumes, evaluation of properties, Analysis of various processes. Real Gases: Introduction. Van-der Waal's Equation of state, Van-der Waal's constants in terms of critical properties, Law of corresponding states, compressiblity factor; compressibility chart 06 Hours Data Handbooks : 1. Thermodynamic data hand book, B.T. Nijaguna. 2. Properties of Refrigerant & Psychometric (tables & Charts in SI Units), Dr. S.S. Banwait, Dr. S.C. Laroiya, Birla Pub. Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 2008 TEXT BOOKS: 1. Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, A.Venkatesh, Universities Press, 2008 2. Basic and Applied Thermodynamics, P.K.Nag, 2nd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill Pub. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, Yunus A.Cenegal and Michael A.Boles, Tata McGraw Hill publications, 2002 2. Engineering Thermodynamics, J.B.Jones and G.A.Hawkins, John Wiley and Sons.. 3. Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, G.J.Van Wylen and R.E.Sonntag, Wiley Eastern. 4. An Introduction to Thermodynamcis, Y.V.C.Rao, Wiley Eastern, 1993, 5. B.K Venkanna, Swati B. Wadavadagi “Basic Thermodynamics, PHI, New Delhi, 2010 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Page 2

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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS 15ME33 CONTENTS 1. Fundamental Concepts & Definitions 4-11 2. Work and Heat 12-25 3. First Law of Thermodynamics 26-42 4. Second Law of Thermodynamics 43-60 5. Entropy 61-76 6. Pure Substances 77-86 7. Thermodynamic relations 8. Ideal gas mixture Department of Mechanical Engineering, 87-104 105-119 Page 3

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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS 15ME33 UNIT 1 Introduction Thermodynamics involves the storage, transformation, and transfer of energy. Energy is stored as internal energy (due to temperature), kinetic energy (due to motion), potential energy (due to elevation), and chemical energy (due to chemical composition); it is transformed from one of these forms to another; and it is transferred across a boundary as either heat or work. We will present equations that relate the transformations and transfers of energy to properties such as temperature, pressure, and density. The properties of materials thus become very important. Many equations will be based on experimental observations that have been presented as mathematical statements, or laws: primarily the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The mechanical engineer‟s objective in studying thermodynamics is most often the analysis of a rather complicated device, such as an air conditioner, an engine, or a power plant. As the fluid flows through such a device, it is assumed to be a continuum in which there are measurable quantities such as pressure, temperature, and velocity. This book, then, will be restricted to macroscopic or engineering thermodynamics. If the behavior of individual molecules is important, statistical thermodynamics must be consulted. System: We need to fix our focus of attention in order to understand heat and work interaction. The body or assemblage or the space on which our attention is focused is called system. The system may be having real or imaginary boundaries across which the interaction occurs. The boundary may be rigid and sometimes take different shapes at different times. If the system has imaginary boundary then we must properly formulate the idea of system in our mind. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Page 4

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BASIC THERMODYNAMICS 15ME33 Surroundings: Everything else apart from system constitutes surroundings. The idea of surroundings gets formulated the moment we define system. System and surroundings together form what is known as universe. Closed system: If the system has a boundary through which mass or material cannot be transferred, but only energy can be transferred is called closed system. In an actual system, there may not be energy transfer. What is essential for the system to be closed is the inability of the boundary to transfer mass only. Open system: If the system has a boundary through which both energy and mass can transfer, then it is called open system. Isolated System An isolated system is that system which exchanges neither energy nor matter with any other system or with environment. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Page 5

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