MODULE I Organisational Behaviour Organizational behavior (OB) or organisational behaviour is "the study of human behavior in organizational settings, the interface between human behavior and the organization, and the organization itself." Organizational Behavior (OB) can be defined as the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior both individually or in a group that occur within an organization. OB is the study of human behaviour at work in organisations. Scope It includes study of individuals, groups and organisation. The aspects of these are as follows: • Individual: The study of individuals include aspects as personality, perception, attitudes, values, job satisfaction, learning and motivation. • Group: It includes aspects such as group dynamics, group conflicts, communication, leadership power and politics. • Organisation: It includes aspects such as formation of organisational structure, culture, change and development. Importance of OB • It helps in explaining the interpersonal relationships employees share with each other as well as with their higher and lower subordinates. • The prediction of individual behavior can be explained. • It balances the cordial relationship in an enterprise by maintaining effective communication. • It helps managers to encourage their sub-ordinates. • It helps in predicting human behavior & their application to achieve organizational goals. • It helps in making the organization more effective.
Theoretical Framework of OB Cognitive Framework Cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as expectancy, demand, and intention. Cognition can be simply defined as the act of knowing an item of information. In cognitive framework, cognitions precede behavior and constitute input into the person’s thinking, perception, problem solving, and information processing. According to Tolman, learning consists of the expectancy that a particular event will lead to a particular consequence. This cognitive concept of expectancy implies that organism is thinking about, or is conscious or aware of the goal and result of a behavior exhibited by it. It means that a person desires a goal and also knows the behavior that will lead to achievement of the goals. Behaviouristic Framework Pioneer behaviorists Ivan Pavlov and Jon B. Watson stressed the importance of studying observable behaviors instead of the elusive mind. They advocated that behavior could be best understood in terms of stimulus and response (S-R). They examined the impact of stimulus and felt that learning occurred when the S-R connection was made. Modern behaviorism, that marks its beginning with B.F. Skinner, advocates that behavior in response to a stimulus is contingent on environmental consequences. Social Cognitive Framework Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviourism’s contingent environmental consequences, but also includes cognitive processes of self-regulation. The social part acknowledges the social origins of much of human thought and action (what individual learns from society), whereas the cognitive portion recognizes the influential contribution of thought processes to human motivation, attitudes, and action. In social cognitive theoretical framework, organizational participants are at the same time both products and producers of their personality, respective environments, and behaviors. The participants as a group of produce the environment, every individual is a product of the enironment and through his behavior changes the environment for others as well as for himself, every individual is a product of his personality, but also influences his personality as consequence of results of his behavior.
MODULE II Attitude An attitude is a mental and emotional entity that inheres in, or characterizes a person. They are complex and an acquired state through experiences. It is an individual's predisposed state of mind regarding a value and it is precipitated through a responsive expression toward a person, place, thing, or event which in turn influences individual's thought and action. Components of Attitude 1. Affective Component: This component involves the person’s feeling or affect-positive, neutral or negative-about an object. This component can be explained by this statement. 2. Behavioural Component: The behavioural component consists of the tendency of a person to behave in a particular manner towards an object. \ 3. Cognitive Component: This component consists of beliefs, values, ideas and other information a person has about the object. It makes no difference whether or not this information is empirically correct or real. Right Attitude Attitude is someone's opinion or feeling about something usually shown by the person's behavior. A right attitude will lead to increase in productivity and good working environment. Attitude involves feelings, values, beliefs and disposition that make individuals to act or behave in a certain way. Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) is the capability of individuals to recognize their own, and other people's emotions, to recognise between different feelings and label them appropriately, to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and to manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt environments or achieve one's goal. Emotional intelligence also reflects abilities to join intelligence, empathy and emotions to enhance thought and understanding of interpersonal dynamics. It is the capacity of recognising our own feelings and those of others for motivating ourselves for managing emotions for ourselves as well as in our relationships.
Developing emotional intelligence at workplace These strategies are based on Daniel Goleman’s five components of emotional intelligence in the workplace. 1. Improve your self-awareness. Self-awareness is the ability to understand and interpret your own moods, emotions, and inner drives, and how these impact other people. People with a solid sense of self-awareness are generally self-confident and have a realistic assessment of themselves, their thoughts, and their behaviors. 2. Improve your self-regulation. Self-regulation is the ability to control or redirect impulsive actions and emotions that negatively impact your potential for growth and leadership. This is the ability to “rise above” petty arguments, jealousies, and frustrations. 3. Improve your motivation. In this context, motivation is your passion and enthusiasm for your work — beyond your position, status, or income. You are driven by your energy and fulfilment in your work, and you pursue goals with persistence. You love a challenge and you’re highly productive. 4. Improve your ability to show empathy. Empathy is the ability to understand and respond appropriately to the emotions of other people. You are skilled in treating people with respect, kindness, and professionalism. 5. Improve your social skills. Having good social skills in the workplace means you’re proficient at managing relationships and building networks. Barriers to changing attitude • • Prior commitments Insufficient information Ways to overcome • • • • Providing new information Use of fear Resolving differences Influence of friends and peer