Applied Ethics primarily denotes the study of ethically controversial issues, such as
imposition of death penalty and cloning. Applied ethics, thus, can be classified further into a
large number of categories such as bioethics, computer ethics, and medical ethics.
VALUES are defined as ‘beliefs about what is right and wrong and what is important in life’.
(OALD).In this sense, values are closely related to morality and ethics. Individuals hold certain values
for their personal behavior. Societal values are those that are accepted by a majority of individuals,
whereas universal values are adhered to by the whole world.
SPIRITUALITY is defined as ‘concerned with the human spirit, rather than the body or physical
things’; ‘concerned with religion’. (OALD)
The word spirituality means ‘the quality of being concerned with religion or the human spirit’.
Spirituality is believed to concern matters that are not physical, temporal, or worldly. In common
parlance, it is said to refer to matters concerning the soul.
STAKE HOLDERS IN MORAL ISSUES
Individuals make up organizations and the society. The morality individuals is more
important in the holistic view of things.
There exist numerous moral codes, etiquettes, legal directions, and religious edicts. The fact
that the existence of all these does not ensure ethical behavior of citizens shows that
individual perceptions and convictions matter considerably.
Individuals thus form the major stakeholders in ensuring a just and morally correct society
Organizations They denote entities that employ groups of people such as a company, an
office, or an institution.
Many organizations lay emphasis on certain codes of ethical conduct while others do not.
Often, organizations do not have any control over an individual’s conduct outside its
Organizations should lay out its ethical codes and inform or train employees to adhere to
good conduct, not only within the organization and works related to the organization, but
Society Individuals and organizations form part of the society. Appropriate behavior in
societal conduct evolves over time.
It denotes a dynamic system of code of conduct that changes with time.
The current moral conduct codes have a big influence on our behavior.
As societies are formed by large groups of people, each individual may not subscribe to all
that the code of conduct prescribes.
‘Ethics is a way of living one’s life in pursuit of excellence. Ethics is not just a private matter. It has its
private and public sides—but it cannot be just personal.’ [Dr Damien Grace]