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Note for Environmental Engineering and Safety - EES By Suman Kumar Acharya

  • Environmental Engineering and Safety - EES
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Module-IV Environment and human health:- occupational health – nutrition, control of communicable diseases, environmental sanitation, mental health. prevention of occupational diseases through medical measures, engineering measures and legislation. role of information technology in human health, causes, prevention and control of diseases like hepatitis, typhoid and malaria. NUTRITION: Occupational Health Occupational Health is the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations by preventing departures from health, controlling risks and the adaptation of work to people, and people to their jobs. Nutrition The process of taking food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair. Nutritional stages are ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion. Occupational Nutrition As many employees consume at least half of their daily meals and snacks during work hours, the workplace is an ideal environment to influence healthy eating behaviors. Institutes must provide a range of resources, services and programs that aim to assist employees in improving their eating habits by providing an increased range of healthier food, drinks and catering available at work Benefits of Occupational Nutrition at Work Place Healthy eating at workplace is beneficial for:     Reduced risk of heart disease and some forms of cancer. Elevated mood, energy and self-esteem. Reduced anxiety and stress. Opportunities to spend enjoyable time with family and friends. 'Healthy eating' program While it's most important for an employer to provide a safe and healthy workplace, it's also important to encourage healthy lifestyles among their employees. Healthy eating programs can be a great first step. They can bring lots of people together to learn how to improve their health both at work and at home. As always, these programs should be part of a complete workplace health program and should not take resources or attention away from workplace hazards that may be present.

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Important steps to follow before starting Healthy Eating Program Knowing why people are interested in a healthy eating program. Are participants looking for general nutrition information, or more specific programs such as heart health?  To be sure to consider what types of programs have been offered in the past. Which programs worked? Which did not?  Knowing exactly who your target audience is.  Planing when will the program be offered (seasonal, or all year) Importance of healthy eating program Healthy eating program ensures:            Recommended types and amounts of food eating each day. At least one dark green and one orange vegetable eating each day. Having vegetables and fruit more often than juice. Making at least half of our grain products whole grain each day. Drinking skim, 1% or 2% milk each day. Having meat alternatives such as beans, lentils, and tofu often. Eating at least two Food Guide servings of fish each week. Including a small amount of unsaturated fat each day. Be active every day. Satisfy our thirst with water. When selecting any item (vegetables, fruit, grain, milk, meat/alternatives, or beverages) those prepared with little or no added fat, sugar or salt should be selected Purpose of Healthy Eating Program Purposes of Healthy Eating Program are:  Provide information about how to make healthier food choices when shopping, ordering in restaurants, etc.  Teach people how to read and understand food labels.  Provide cooking demonstrations, or cooking tips, for making healthy foods.  Post a list of local restaurants that offer balanced food menus.  Invite a speaker to a 'lunch-n-learn' session.  Stock vending machines with healthier options.  Arrange for the cafeteria to offer a range of healthy food choices for every meal.  Have a refrigerator and microwave at work so people can bring healthy lunches from home.  When lunches or drinks are provided at meetings, be sure to provide healthy choices.  Arrange for a group to go to a weight management program together, or have the program come to your office at a convenient time.  Give people a way to share healthy recipes with each other, by using Intranet, e-mail, or posters.  Provide information about how to use low-fat ingredients in favourite recipes.

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Does the workplace influence how people eat? The workplace environment influences the health of its employees. For example, if a healthy eating program is offered, remember to look at where the employees eat their lunch. A safe and clean eating area is a requirement under most occupational health and safety laws. Beyond this, it is important to look at what is offered at vending machines and staff cafeterias. If you don't look at the larger picture and see how the way the workplace itself influences the eating patterns of the employees, the program will often not work very well. Be sure the workplace supports healthy eating programs by providing time for employees to go to information sessions, offering appropriate foods in the cafeteria and vending machines, or by having refrigerators and microwaves so that meals can be stored and prepared appropriately. CONTROL COMMUNICABLE DISEASE Communicable disease A communicable disease is defined as an illness that arises from transmission of an infectious agent or its toxic product from an infected person, animal or reservoir to a susceptible host, either directly or indirectly through an intermediate plant or animal host, vector, or environment. Classification of communicable disease There are various ways of classifying communicable diseases. Communicable diseases are mainly classified under these two category:  Clinical classification is based on the main clinical manifestations (symptoms and signs) of the disease.  Epidemiologic classification is based on the main mode of transmission of the disease. Sub classification of communicable disease are     Contact diseases e.g. scabies, pediculosis, bedbugs, fleas, flies, Fungal skin infections, trachoma, acute bacterial conjuctivities. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS Vector borne diseases e.g. relapsing fever, bancroftian filariasisn onchocerciasis, yellow fever, trypanosomiasis, plague, schistosomiasis, dracunculosis, leishmaniasis) and Malaria.  Diseses caused by Faecal – oral contamination e.g acute gastro-enteritis, bacillary dysentery, campylobacter jejuni, giadiasis, amoebiasis, cholera, enteric fevers, food poisoning, poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis.  Helmonthic diseases e.g. Ascariaris, enterobiasis, trichuriasis, hookworm, strongyloidiasis, taeniasis, hydatidosis  Airborne diseases ; Acute respiratory infections, Meningitis (bacterial and fungal) Tuberculosis and leprosy. Zoonotic

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Steps to diagnose communicable diseases  The first step is to ask about the main complaints of the patient.  Then ask about the presence of other related symptoms and risk factors.  Examine the patient physically to detect signs of any diseases you suspect.  Finally, refer the patient for laboratory examinations if available (e.g. blood examination for malaria). These diagnosis are done mainly in three steps  Screening  Isolation  Reporting Communicable Diseases: Prevention and Control Communicable diseases are those diseases that may be transmitted from person to person, food, water and/or animals and are the most common cause of school absenteeism. The purposes of the guidelines in the Communicable Disease Control Manual are  To assist public health practitioners with decision-making about specific situations and  Support consistency of provincial public health practice. Purposes of the guidelines in the Communicable Disease Control Manual are  To have detailed informations on the fundamental principles of communicable disease control in emergencies:  Conducting a rapid assessment and identifying the main communicable disease threats; preventing communicable diseases by maintaining a healthy physical environment;  Establishing a disease surveillance/early warning system to ensure early reporting of cases  Monitoring of disease trends; controling outbreaks through adequate preparedness and rapid response; and  Managing disease with prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. By setting standards for communicable disease control in emergencies, it is hoped that effective, coordinated action towards the prevention and control of communicable diseases in emergencies will result.

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