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Note for Microprocessor - MP By Er Ibrar

  • Microprocessor - MP
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Evolution of Microprocessor – Types of Microprocessors The microprocessor is nothing but the CPU and it is an essential component of the computer. It is a silicon chip that comprises millions of transistors and other electronic components that process millions of instructions per second. A Microprocessor is a versatile chip, that is combined with memory and special purpose chips and preprogrammed by a software. It accepts digital data as i/p and processes it according to the instructions stored in the memory.The microprocessor has many functions like functions of data storage, interact with various other devices and other time related functions. But, the main function is to send and receive the data to make the function of the computer well. This article discusses about the types and evolution of microprocessor.Please follow this link for Microprocessor History and Generation of Microprocessor Microprocessor Evolution of Microprocessor The microprocessor has become more essential part of many gadgets. The evolution of microprocessors was divided into five generations such as first, second, third, fourth and fifth generation and the characteristics of these generations are discussed below. Evolution of Microprocessors

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First Generation Microprocessors The first generation microprocessors were introduced in the year 1971-1972. The instructions of these microprocessors were processed serially, they fetched the instruction, decoded and then executed it. When an instruction of the microprocessor was finished, then the microprocessor updates the instruction pointer & fetched the following instruction, performing this consecutive operation for each instruction in turn. Second Generation Microprocessors In the year 1970, small amount of transistors were available on the integrated circuit in the second generation microprocessors. Examples of the second generation microprocessors are 16-bit arithmetic 7 pipelined instruction processing, MC68000 Motorola microprocessor. These processors are introduced in the year 1979, and Intel 8080 processor is another example of the microprocessor. The second generation of the microprocessor is defined by overlapped fetch, decode and execute the steps. When the first generation is processed in the execution unit, then the second instruction is decoded and the third instruction is fetched. The difference between the first generation microprocessor and second generation microprocessors was mainly the use of new semiconductor technologies to manufacture the chips. The result of this technology resulted in a fivefold increase in instruction, speed, execution and higher chip densities. Third Generation Microprocessors The third generation microprocessors were introduced in the year 1978, as denoted by Intel’s 8086 and the Zilog Z8000. These were 16-bit processors with a performance like mini computers. These types of microprocessors were different from the previous generations of microprocessors in that all main workstation industrialists began evolving their own ISC based microprocessor architectures. Fourth Generation Microprocessors As many industries converted from commercial microprocessors to in house designs, the fourth generation microprocessors are entered with outstanding design with a million transistors. Leading edge microprocessors like Motorola’s 88100 and Intel’s 80960CA could issue & retire more than one instruction per clock cycle.

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Fifth Generation Microprocessors Fifth generation microprocessors employed decoupled super scalar processing, and their design soon exceeded 10 million transistors. In fifth generation, PCs are a low-margin, high volume business conquered by a single microprocessor. Types of Microprocessor Microprocessors are classified into five types, namely: CISC-Complex Instruction Set Microprocessors, RISC-Reduced Instruction Set Microprocessor, ASIC- Application Specific Integrated Circuit, Superscalar Processors, DSP’s-Digital Signal Microprocessors. Types Of Microprocessors Complex Instruction Set Microprocessors The short term of Complex Instruction Set Microprocessors is CISM and they classify a microprocessor in which orders can be performed together along with other low level activities. These types of processors performs the different tasks like downloading, uploading, recalling data into the memory card and recalling data from the memory card. Apart from these tasks, it also does complex mathematical calculations in a single command.

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Reduced Instruction Set Microprocessor The short term of Reduced Instruction Set Microprocessor is RISC. These types of processors are made according to the function in which the microprocessor can carry out small things in specific command. In this way these processors completes more commands at a faster rate. Superscalar Microprocessors Superscalar processor facsimiles the hardware on the processor to perform various tasks at a time. These processors can be used for ALUs or multipliers. They have different operational units and these processors can carry out more than a one command by continuously transmitting several instructions to the extra operational units inside the processor. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit The short term of Application Specific Integrated Circuit processor is an ASIC. These processors are used for particular purposes that includes of automotive emissions control or personal digital assistant’s computer. This type of processor is made with proper specification, but apart from these it can also be made with off the shelf gears. Digital Signal Multiprocessors Digital signal processors are also called as DSP’s, these processors are used to encode and decode the videos or to convert the D/A (digital to analog) &A/D (analog to digital). They need a microprocessor that is excellent in mathematical calculations. The chips of this processor are employed in RADAR, home theaters, SONAR, audio gears, TV set top boxes and Mobile phones There are many companies like Intel, Motorola, DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation ), TI (Texas Instruments) associated with many microprocessors such as 8085 microprocessors, ASIC, CISM, RISC, DSPs microprocessors like Intel Advantages and Disadvantages of Microprocessors The advantages of microprocessors are  The processing speed is high  Intelligence has been brought to systems and 8086

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