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Transportation Engineering 2

by Aditya Kumar
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TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II Module – I (10 Hours) History of Indian Railways, Component parts of railway track, Problems of multi gauge system, Wheel and axis arrangements, Coning of wheels, Various resistances and their evaluation, hauling capacity and tractive effort, stresses in rail, sleepers, ballast and formation. Permanent way component parts :, wear and failure in rails, Rail joints, bearing plates, anti-creep devices, check and guard rails, Ballast requirements, Specifications, Formation, Cross-section, drainage. Module – II (10 Hours) Geometric design : Alignment, horizontal curves, super elevation, equilibrium cant and cant deficiency, Length of transition curves, Gradients and grade compensation, vertical curves. Point and Crossing : Design of simple turn out, various types of track junction and their configurations. Module – III (10 Hours) Signalling and interlocking : Control of train movement and monitoring, types of signals, principles of interlocking. Air Transport Development : Airport scenario in India – Stages of development, Aircraft characteristics, airport planning, site selection, Obstruction and zoning laws, Imaginary surfaces, Approach zones and turning zones. Module – IV (10 Hours) Runways and Taxiway design : Elements of runway, orientation and configuration, Basic runway length and corrections, Geometric elements design, Taxiway design, Main and exit taxiway, Separation clearance, Holding aprons, Typical airport layouts, Terminal building, gate position. Visual Aids and Air Traffic Control : Airport making and lighting, Airway and airport traffic control, Instrumental landing systems and Air navigation aids. A C E BANGALORE Page 1
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II UNIT 1 History of Indian Railways Introduction In the year 1832 the first Railway running on steam engine, was launched in England. Thereafter on 1st of August, 1849 the Great Indian Peninsular Railways Company was established in India. On 17th of August 1849, a contract was signed between the Great Indian Peninsular Railways Company and East India Company. As a result of the contract an experiment was made by laying a railway track between Bombay and Thane (56 Kms).  On 16th April, 1853, the first train service was started from Bombay to Thane.  On 15th August, 1854, the 2nd train service commenced between Howrah and Hubli.  On the 1st July, 1856, the 3rd train service in India and first in South India commenced between Vyasarpadi and Walajah Road and on the same day the section between Vyasarpadi and Royapuram by Madras Railway Company was also opened. Subsequently construction of this efficient transport system began simultaneously in different parts of the Country. By the end of 19th Century 24752 Kms. of rail track was laid for traffic. At this juncture the power, capital, revenue rested with the British. Revenue started flowing through passenger as well as through goods traffic. Organizational structure Railway zones Indian Railways is divided into several zones, which are further sub-divided into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in 1951, nine in 1952 and sixteen in 2003. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of sixty-eight divisions. Each of the sixteen zones is headed by a general manager who reports directly to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control of divisional railway managers (DRM). A C E BANGALORE Page 2
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II Component parts of railway track The Typical components are – Rails, – Sleepers (or ties), – Fasteners, – Ballast (or slab track), – Subgrade GAUGE The clear minimum horizontal distance between the inner (running) faces of the two rails forming a track is known as Gauge. Indian railway followed this practice. In European countries, the gauge is measured between the inner faces of two rails at a point 14 mm below the top of the rail. GAUGES ON WORLD RAILWAYS Various gauges have been adopted by different railways in the world due to historical and other considerations. Initially British Railways had adopted a gauge of 1525 mm (5 feet), but the wheel flanges at that time were on the outside of the rails. Subsequently, in order to guide the wheels better, the flanges were made inside the rails. The gauge then became 1435 mm (4'8.5"), as at that time the width of the rail at the top was 45 mm (1.75 "). The 1435 mm gauge became the standard on most European Railways. A C E BANGALORE Page 3
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING II DIFFERENT GAUGES ON INDIAN RAILWAYS The East India Company intended to adopt the standard gauge of 1435 mm in India also. This proposal was, however, challenged by W. Simms, Consulting Engineer to the Government of India, who recommended a wider gauge of 1676 mm (5 '6 "). The Court of Directors of the East India Company decided to adopt Simms's recommendation and 5'6 " finally became the Indian standard gauge. In 1871, the Government of India wanted to construct cheaper railways for the development of the country and 1000 mm metre gauge was introduced. In due course of time, two more gauges of widths 762 mm (2 '6 ") and 610 mm (2 '0 ") were introduced for thinly populated areas, mountain railways, and other miscellaneous purposes. Broad Gauge: When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is 1676mm the gauge is called Broad Gauge (B.G) This gauge is also known as standard gauge of India and is the broadest gauge of the world. The Other countries using the Broad Gauge are Pakistan, Bangladesh, SriLanka, Brazil, Argentine, etc.50% India‗s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability: Broad gauge is suitable under the following Conditions:- (i) When sufficient funds are available for the railway project. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in plain areas which are densely populated i.e. for routes of maximum traffic, intensities and at places which are centers of industry and commerce. 2. Metre Gauge: When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is 1000mm, the gauge is known as Metre Gauge (M.G) The other countries using Metre gauge are France, Switzerland, Argentine, etc. 40% of India‗s railway tracks have been laid to this gauge. Suitability:- Metre Gauge is suitable under the following conditions:- (i) When the funds available for the railway project are inadequate. (ii) When the prospects of revenue are not very bright. This gauge is, therefore, used for tracks in under-developed areas and in interior areas, where traffic intensity is small and prospects for future development are not very bright. 3. Narrow Gauge:When the clear horizontal distance between the inner faces of two parallel rails forming a track is either 762mm or 610mm, the gauge is known as Narrow gauge (N.G) The other countries using narrow gauge are Britain, South Africa, etc. 10% of India‗s railway tracks A C E BANGALORE Page 4

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