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Environmental Engineering

by Garikapati Rambabu
Type: NoteCourse: B.Tech Specialization: Civil EngineeringDownloads: 4Views: 243Uploaded: 2 months agoAdd to Favourite

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Environmental Engineering by Garikapati Rambabu

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Garikapati Rambabu
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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I VI SEMESTER ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I Subject Code : 10CV61 IA Marks : 25 No. of Lecture Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total No. of Lecture Hours : 52 Exam Marks : 100 Part - A Unit - 1 INTRODUCTION: Human activities and environmental pollution. Water for various beneficial uses and quality requirement. Need for protected water supply. 2 Hours DEMAND OF WATER: Types of water demands- domestic demand in detail, institutional and commercial, public uses, fire demand. Percapita consumption –factors affecting per capita demand, population forecasting, different methods with merits &demerits- variations in demand of water. Fire demand – estimation by Kuichling‟s formula, Freeman formula & national board of fire underwriters formula, peak factors, design periods & factors governing the design periods 6 Hours Unit - 2 SOURCES: Surface and subsurface sources – suitability with regard to quality and quantity. 3 Hours COLLECTION AND CONVEYANCE OF WATER: Intake structures – different types of intakes; factor of selection and location of intakes. Pumps- Necessity, types – power of pumps; factors for the selection of a pump. Pipes – Design of the economical diameter for the rising main; Nomograms – use; Pipe appurtenances. 6 Hours Unit - 3 QUALITY OF WATER: Objectives of water quality management. wholesomeness& palatability, water borne diseases. Water quality parameters – Physical, chemical and Microbiological.Sampling of water for examination. Water quality analysis (IS: 3025 and IS: 1622) using analytical and instrumental techniques. Drinking waterstandards BIS & Dept. civil engg. ACE, Bangalore Page 1
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I WHO guidelines. Health significance of Fluoride, Nitrates and heavy metals like Mercury, Cadmium, Arsenic etc. andtoxic / trace organics.6 Hours Unit - 4 WATER TREATMENT: Objectives – Treatment flow-chart. Aeration- Principles, types of Aerators SEDIMENTATION: .2Hours Theory, settling tanks, types, design. Coagulant sedimentation, jar test, chemical feeding, flash mixing, and clariflocculator. aided 4Hours Part - B Unit - 5 FILTRATION: Mechanism – theory of filtration, types of filters, slow sand, rapid sand and pressure filters including construction, operation, cleaning and their design – excluding under drainage system – back washing of filters. Operational problems in filters.6 Hours Unit - 6 DISINFECTION: Theory of disinfection, types of disinfection, Chlorination, chlorine demand, residual chlorine, use of bleaching powder. UV irradiation treatment – treatment of swimming pool water 4Hours SOFTENING – definition, methods of removal of hardness by lime soda process and zeolite process RO & Membrane technique. 3 Hours Unit - 7 MISCELLANEOUS TREATMENT: Removal of color, odor, taste, use of copper sulfate,adsorption technique, fluoridation and defluoridation. 4 Hours DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: System of supply, service reservoirs and their capacity determination, methods of layout of distribution system. 4 Hours Unit - 8 MISCELLANEOUS: Pipe appurtenances, various valves, type of fire hydrants, pipefitting, Layout of water supply pipes in buildings. 2Hours TEXT BOOKS: Dept. civil engg. ACE, Bangalore Page 2
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I 1. Water supply Engineering –S.K.Garg, Khanna Publishers 2. Environmental Engineering I –B C Punima and Ashok Jain 3. Manual on Water supply and treatment –CPHEEO, Minstry of Urban Development, New Delhi REFERENCES 1. Hammer, M.J., (1986), Water and Wastewater Technology –SI Version, 2ndEdition, John Wiley and Sons. 2. Karia, G.L., and Christian, R.A., (2006), Wastewater Treatment – Concepts and Design Approach, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,New Delhi. 3. Metcalf and Eddy, (2003), Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse ,4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Edition, Tata McGraw HillPublishing Co. Ltd. 4. Peavy, H.S., Rowe, D.R., and Tchobanoglous, G., (1986),Environmental Engineering–McGraw Hill Book Co. 5. Raju, B.S.N., (1995), Water Supply and Wastewater Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 6. Sincero, A.P., and Sincero, G.A., (1999), Environmental Engineering – A Design Approach–Prentice Hall of India Pvt.Ltd., New Delhi. CHAPTER 1 Dept. civil engg. ACE, Bangalore Page 3
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING-I INTRODUCTION Human activities and environment pollution Humans impact the environment in several ways. Common effects include decreased water quality, increased pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, depletion of natural resources and contribution to global climate change. Some of these are the direct result of human activities, whereas others are secondary effects that are part of a series of actions and reactions. Water Pollution Perhaps the most obvious examples of a negative human impact on the environment is water pollution. It's obvious we need water to survive but few people realize how much we need and just how much is available. Consider these facts from the United Nations Environment Programme: 1 Of all the water on Earth, only 2.5% of it is freshwater. 2 Of that 2.5%, less than 1% is available to us. 3 Humans each require up to 13 gallons (50 litres) a day of fresh water for drinking, cooking and cleaning. This does NOT take into account the countless gallons of water needed to grow food or care for animals. 4 70% of all freshwater usage goes to irrigation. According to Organic Farming Research Foundation, only 2% of farms are organic. This equates to almost 69% of our freshwater supply is being contaminated by chemical pesticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers, while also compounded with fossil fuels and emissions from heavy farming machinery. These chemical compounds contribute to acid rain. Since very little can live in an acidic environment, acid rain has harmful effects on plants, animals, and aquatic life, as well as humans and even buildings, statues or other objects. Acid rain also contaminates our limited freshwater supply, and thus the cycle of water pollution continues. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 45% of assessed stream miles, 47% of assessed lake acres, and 32% of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were not clean enough to support uses such as swimming or fishing. The following reasons and possible sources for this include: Sediments, pathogens and habitat alterations from agricultural activity and hydrologic modifications (such as dams Excessive nutrients, metals and organic enrichment from agricultural activity and Dept. civil engg. ACE, Bangalore Page 4

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