▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ jabswitch – the Java Access Bridge. Exposes assistive technologies on Microsoft Windows systems. java – the loader for Java applications. This tool is an interpreter and can interpret the class files generated by the javaccompiler. Now a single launcher is used for both development and deployment. The old deployment launcher, jre, no longer comes with Sun JDK, and instead it has been replaced by this new java loader. javac – the Java compiler, which converts source code into Java bytecode javadoc – the documentation generator, which automatically generates documentation from source code comments jar – the archiver, which packages related class libraries into a single JAR file. This tool also helps manage JAR files. javafxpackager – tool to package and sign JavaFX applications jarsigner – the jar signing and verification tool javah – the C header and stub generator, used to write native methods javap – the class file disassembler javaws – the Java Web Startlauncher for JNLP applications JConsole – Java Monitoring and Management Console jdb – the debugger jhat – Java Heap Analysis Tool (experimental) jinfo – This utility gets configuration information from a running Java process or crash dump. (experimental) jmap Oracle jmap - Memory Map– This utility outputs the memory map for Java and can print shared object memory maps or heap memory details of a given process or core dump. (experimental) jmc – Java Mission Control jps – Java Virtual Machine Process Status Tool lists the instrumented HotSpot Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) on the target system. (experimental) jrunscript – Java command-line script shell. jstack – utility that prints Java stack traces of Java threads (experimental) jstat – Java Virtual Machinestatistics monitoring tool (experimental) jstatd – jstat daemon (experimental) keytool – tool for manipulating the keystore pack200 – JAR compression tool policytool – the policy creation and management tool, which can determine policy for a Java runtime, specifying which permissions are available for code from various sources. VisualVM – visual tool integrating several command-line JDK tools and lightweight[clarification needed]performance and memory profilingcapabilities wsimport – generates portable JAX-WS artifacts for invoking a web service. xjc – Part of the Java API for XML Binding (JAXB) API. It accepts an XML schema and generates Java classes. Experimental tools may not be available in future versions of the JDK. The JDK also comes with a complete Java Runtime Environment, usually called a private runtime, due to the fact that it is separated from the "regular" JRE and has extra contents. It consists of a Java Virtual Machine and all of the class libraries present in the
production environment, as well as additional libraries only useful to developers, such as the internationalization libraries and the IDL libraries. Copies of the JDK also include a wide selection of example programs demonstrating the use of almost all portions of the Java API. Ambiguity between a JDK and an SDK The JDK forms an extended subset of a software development kit (SDK). It includes "tools for developing, debugging, and monitoring Java applications".Oracle strongly suggests to now use the term JDK to refer to the Java SE Development Kit. The Java EE SDK is available with or without the JDK, by which they specifically mean the Java SE 7 JDK. 2.JVM Java virtual machine "JRE" redirects here. For the podcast, see Joe Rogan Experience. A Java virtual machine (JVM) is an abstract computing machine that enables a computer to run a Java program. There are three notions of the JVM: specification, implementation, and instance. The specification is a document that formally describes what is required of a JVM implementation. Having a single specification ensures all implementations are interoperable. A JVM implementation is a computer program that meets the requirements of the JVM specification. An instance of a JVM is an implementation running in a process that executes a computer program compiled into Java bytecode. Java virtual machine Sun Microsystems Designer Bits 32-bit Introduced 1994 Type Endianness Stack and register–register Big
Registers General purpose Per-method operand stack (up to 65535 operands) plus permethod local variables (up to 65535) Overview of a Java virtual machine (JVM) architecture based on The Java Virtual Machine Specification Java SE 7 Edition Java Runtime Environment (JRE) is a software package that contains what is required to run a Java program. It includes a Java Virtual Machine implementation together with an implementation of the Java Class Library. The Oracle Corporation, which owns the Java trademark, distributes a Java Runtime environment with their Java Virtual Machine called HotSpot. Java Development Kit (JDK) is a superset of a JRE and contains tools for Java programmers, e.g. a javac compiler. The Java Development Kit is provided free of charge either by Oracle Corporation directly, or by the OpenJDK open source project, which is governed by Oracle. 3.Web browser Usage share of web browsers according to StatCounter A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information
resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier(URI/URL) that may be a web page, image, video or other piece of content.Hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources. Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by web servers in private networks or files in file systems. The most popular web browsers are Chrome, Edge (preceded by Internet Explorer),Safari, Opera and Firefox. History Main article: History of the web browser The first web browser was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web's continued development, and is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation. His browser was called WorldWideWeb and later renamed Nexus, and ran on NeXT Computers. Berners-Lee recruited Nicola Pellow, a math student intern working at CERN, to write the Line Mode Browser a cross-platform web browser that displayed web-pages on dumb terminals and was released in 1991. Nicola Pellow and Tim Berners-Lee in their office at CERN. The first commonly available web browser with a graphical user interface was Erwise. The development of Erwise was initiated by Robert Cailliau. Marc Andreessen, inventor of Netscape Navigator In 1993, browser software was further innovated by Marc Andreessen with the release of Mosaic, "the world's first popular browser", which made the World Wide Web system easy to use and more accessible to the average person. Andreesen's browser sparked the internet boom of the 1990s. The introduction of Mosaic in 1993 – one of the first graphical web browsers – led to an explosion in web use. Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team at National Center for Supercomputing Applications(NCSA), soon started his own company, named Netscape, and released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994, which quickly became the world's most popular browser, accounting for 90% of all web use at its peak (see usage share of web browsers). Microsoft responded with its Internet Explorer in 1995, also heavily influenced by Mosaic, initiating the industry's first browser war. Bundled with Windows, Internet Explorer gained dominance in the web browser market; Internet Explorer usage share peaked at over 95% by 2002. WorldWideWeb for NeXT, released in 1991, was the first web browser.