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Cellular and Mobile Communications

by Chalapathi BodeppaChalapathi Bodeppa
Type: NoteInstitute: Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Anantapur JNTUA Specialization: Electronics and Communication EngineeringOffline Downloads: 14Views: 850Uploaded: 5 months ago

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Chalapathi Bodeppa
Chalapathi Bodeppa
Smartzworld.com Smartworld.asia LECTURE NOTES ON CELLULAR AND MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS III B. Tech I semester (JNTUH-R13) ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING jntuworldupdates.org Specworld.in
Smartzworld.com Smartworld.asia UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR SYSTEMS Limitations of conventional mobile telephone systems One of many reasons for developing a cellular mobile telephone system and deploying it in many cities is the operational limitations of conventional mobile telephone systems: limited service capability, poor service performance, and inefficient frequency spectrum utilization. 1. Limited service capability: A conventional mobile telephone system is usually designed by selecting one or more channels from a specific frequency allocation for use in autonomous geographic zones, as shown in Fig.1. The communications coverage area of each zone is normally planned to be as large as possible, which means that the transmitted power should be as high as the federal specification allows. The user who starts a call in one zone has to reinitiate the call when moving into a new zone because the call will be dropped. This is an undesirable radio telephone system since there is no guarantee that a call can be completed without a handoff capability. The handoff is a process of automatically changing frequencies as the mobile unit moves into a different frequency zone so that the conversation can be continued in a new frequency zone without redialing. Another disadvantage of the conventional system is that the number of active users is limited to the number of channels assigned to a particular frequency zone. Fig.1 Conventional Mobile System 1 jntuworldupdates.org Specworld.in
Smartzworld.com Smartworld.asia Poor Service Performance: In the past, a total of 33 channels were all allocated to three mobile telephone systems: Mobile Telephone Service (MTS), Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) MJ systems, and Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) MK systems. MTS operates around 40 MHz and MJ operates at 150 MHs; both provide 11 channels; IMTS MK operates at 450 MHz and provides 12 channels. These 33 channels must cover an area 50 mi in diameter. In 1976, New York City had 6 channels of( MJ serving 320 customers, with another 2400 customers on a waiting list. New York City also had 6 channels of MK serving 225 customers, with another 1300 customers on a waiting list. The large number of subscribers created a high blocking probability during busy hours. Although service performance was undesirable, the demand was still great. A high-capacity system for mobile telephones was needed. Inefficient Frequency Spectrum Utilization: In a conventional mobile telephone system, the frequency utilization measurement Mo, is defined as the maximum number of customers that could be served by one channel at the busy hour. Mo = Number of customers/channel Mo = 53 for MJ 37 for MK The offered load can then be obtained by A = Average calling time (minutes) x total customers / 60 min (Erlangs) Assume average calling time = 1.76 min. A1 = 1.76 * 53 * 6 / 60 = 9.33 Erlangs (MJ system) A2 = 1.76 * 37 * 6 / 60 = 6.51 Erlangs (MK system) If the number of channels is 6 and the offered loads are A1 = 9.33 and A2 = 6.51, then from the Erlang B model the blocking probabilities, B1 = 50 percent (MJ system) and B2 =30 percent (MK system), respectively. It is likely that half the initiating calls will be blocked in the MJ system, a very high blocking probability. As far as frequency spectrum 2 jntuworldupdates.org Specworld.in
Smartzworld.com Smartworld.asia utilization is concerned, the conventional system does not utilize the spectrum efficiently since each channel can only serve one customer at a time in a whole area. This is overcomed by the new cellular system. BASIC CELLULAR SYSTEMS A basic analog cellular system consists of three subsystems: a mobile unit, a cell site, and a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO), as Fig. 1.1 shows, with connections to link the three subsystems. 1. Mobile units. A mobile telephone unit contains a control unit, a transceiver, and an antenna system. 2. Cell site. The cell site provides interface between the MTSO and the mobile units. It has a control unit, radio cabinets, antennas, a power plant, and data terminals. 3. MTSO. The switching office, the central coordinating element for all cell sites, con-tains the cellular processor and cellular switch. It interfaces with telephone company zone offices, controls call processing, provides operation and maintenance, and han-dles billing activities. 4. Connections. The radio and high-speed data links connect the three subsystems. Each mobile unit can only use one channel at a time for its communication link. But the channel is not fixed; it can be any one in the entire band assigned by the serving area, with each site having multichannel capabilities that can connect simultaneously to many mobile units. The MTSO is the heart of the analog cellular mobile system. Its processor provides central coordination and cellular administration. The cellular switch, which can be either analog or digital, switches calls to connect mobile subscribers to other mobile subscribers and to the nationwide telephone network. It uses voice trunks similar to telephone company interoffice voice trunks. It also contains data links providing supervision links between the processor and the switch and between the cell sites and the processor. The radio link carries the voice and signaling between the mobile unit and the cell site. The high-speed data links 3 jntuworldupdates.org Specworld.in

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