DARSHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION
BE Sem. 8 EC
Radar & Navigational Aids (181103)
Part A: Prof. B. S. Bhesdadiya, (2 Lectures per week)
Part B: Prof. K. M. Vyas. (2 Lectures per week)
Teaching Scheme &
Teaching scheme: Theory: 4 Hr/week
Practical: 2 Hrs/Week
Evaluation scheme: End Sem.: 70 marks
Continuous Evaluation: 30 marks
Practical: 50 marks.
Theory lectures will cover details on all types of Radar & Navigational Systems and
laboratory sessions will cover tutorials on radar & navigation systems.
Linked to previous semester subjects: Antenna & Wave Propagation (BE Sem 6),
Electronic Communication (BE Sem 5).
Text Books: Skolnik, M., " Introduction to Radar Systems", Tata McGraw-Hill, 3rd
Edition, 2001, N. S. Nagaraja, "Elements of Electronic Navigation Systems", Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2nd Edition, 2000
Navigation: The art of directing the movements of a craft (object) from one point to
another along a desired path is called navigation.
In short navigation is process to finding a short & secure path to travel.
Aids of navigation :
o The Sun, The Moon, The Stars & The Winds
o The Theodolite & Charts (Maps of known world)
A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference
that is stationary relative to the surface of the Earth.
The frame of reference defines the four cardinal directions (or points) –
north, south, east, and west.
Intermediate directions are also defined. Usually, a diagram called a compass rose,
which shows the directions (with their names usually abbreviated to initials), is
marked on the compass.
When the compass is in use, the rose is aligned with the real directions in the frame of
reference, so, for example, the "N" mark on the rose really points to the north.
The magnetic compass was first invented as a device for divination as early as
the Chinese Han Dynasty (since about 206 BC).
A simple compass is shown in figure 1.
Department of Electronics & Communication, DIET, Rajkot
BE Sem 8, 181103, Lecture B.1