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Wireless Sensor Network

by Krishna Mohan
Type: NoteCourse: MCA Specialization: Master of Computer ApplicationsViews: 55Uploaded: 1 month agoAdd to Favourite

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Krishna Mohan
Krishna Mohan
Wireless Sensor Networks Platforms, Tools and Simulators Jaydip Sen Innovation Labs, Tata Consultancy Services Bangalore, India 1 Introduction A real-world sensor network application is likely to incorporate all the functionalities like sensing and estimation, networking, infrastructure services, sensor tasking, data storage and query. This makes sensor network application development quite different from traditional distributed system development or database programming. With ad hoc deployment and frequently changing network topology, a sensor network application can hardly assume an always-on infrastructure that provides reliable services such as optimal routing, global directories, or service discovery. There are two types of programming for sensor networks, those carried out by end users and those performed by application developers. An end user may view a sensor network as a pool of data and interact with the network via queries. Just as with query languages for database systems like SQL, a good sensor network programming language should be expressive enough to encode application logic at a high level of abstraction, and at the same time be structured enough to allow efficient execution on the distributed platform. On the other hand, an application developer must provide end users a sensor network with the capabilities of data acquisition, processing, and storage. Unlike general distributed or database systems, collaborative signal and information processing (CSIP) software comprise reactive, concurrent, distributed programs running on ad hoc resourceconstrained, unreliable computation and communication platforms. For example, signals are noisy, events can happen at the same time, communication and computation take time, communications may be unreliable, battery life is limited, and so on. 2 Sensor Node Hardware Sensor node hardware can be grouped into three categories, each of which entails a different trade-offs in the design choices. • Augmented general-purpose computers: Examples include low-power PCs, embedded PCs (e.g. PC104), custom-designed PCs, (e.g. Sensoria WINS NG nodes), and various personal digital assistants (PDA). These nodes typically run –ff-the-shelf operating systems such as WinCE, Linux, or real-time operating systems and use standard wireless communication protocols such as IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, Zigbee etc. Because of their relatively higher processing capability, they can accommodate wide
variety of sensors, ranging from simple microphones to more sophisticated video cameras. • Dedicated embedded sensor nodes: Examples include the Berkeley mote family [1], the UCLA Medusa family [2], Ember nodes and MIT µAMP [3]. These platforms typically use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) chip sets with emphasis on small form factor, low power processing and communication, and simple sensor interfaces. Because of their COTS CPU, these platforms typically support at least one programming language, such as C. However, in order to keep the program footprint small to accommodate their small memory size, programmers of these platforms are given full access to hardware but rarely any operating system support. A classical example is the TinyOS platform and its companion programming language, nesC. • System on-chip (SoC) nodes: Examples of SoC hardware include smart dust [4], the BWRC picoradio node [5], and the PASTA node [6]. Designers of these platforms try to push the hardware limits by fundamentally rethinking the hardware architecture trade-offs for a sensor node at the chip design level. The goal is to find new ways of integrating CMOS, MEMS, and RF technologies to build extremely low power and small footprint sensor nodes that still provide certain sensing, computation, and communication capabilities. Among these hardware platforms, the Berkeley motes, due to their small form factor, open source software development, and commercial availability, have gained wide popularity in the sensor network research. 3 Sensor Network Programming Challenges Traditional programming technologies rely on operating systems to provide abstraction for processing, I/O, networking, and user interaction hardware. When applying such a model to programming networked embedded systems, such as sensor networks, the application programmers need to explicitly deal with message passing, event synchronization, interrupt handling, and sensor reading. As a result, an application is typically implemented as a finite state machine (FSM) that covers all extreme cases: unreliable communication channels, long delays, irregular arrival of messages, simultaneous events etc. For resource-constrained embedded systems with real-time requirements, several mechanisms are used in embedded operating systems to reduce code size, improve response time, and reduce energy consumption. Microkernel technologies [7] modularize the operating system so that only the necessary parts are deployed with the application. Real-time scheduling [8] allocates resources to more urgent tasks so that they can be finished early. Event-driven execution allows the system to fall into low-power sleep mode when no interesting events need to be processed. At the extreme, embedded operating systems tend to expose more hardware controls to the programmers, who now have to directly face device drivers and scheduling algorithms, and optimize code at the assembly level. Although these techniques may work well for small, stand-alone embedded systems, they do not scale up for the programming of sensor networks for two reasons:
• Sensor networks are large-scale distributed systems, where global properties are derivable from program execution in a massive number of distributed nodes. Distributed algorithms themselves are hard to implement, especially when infrastructure support is limited due to the ad hoc formation of the system and constrained power, memory, and bandwidth resources. • As sensor nodes deeply embed into the physical world, a sensor network should be able to respond to multiple concurrent stimuli at the speed of changes of the physical phenomena of interest. There no single universal design methodology for all applications. Depending on the specific tasks of a sensor network and the way the sensor nodes are organized, certain methodologies and platforms may be better choices than others. For example, if the network is used for monitoring a small set of phenomena and the sensor nodes are organized in a simple star topology, then a client-server software model would be sufficient. If the network is used for monitoring a large area from a single access point (i.e., the base station), and if user queries can be decoupled into aggregations of sensor readings from a subset of nodes, then a tree structure that is rooted at the base station is a better choice. However, if the phenomena to be monitored are moving targets, as in the target tracking, then neither the simple client-server model nor the tree organization is optimal. More sophisticated design and methodologies and platforms are required. 4 Node-Level Software Platforms Most design methodologies for sensor network software are node-centric, where programmers think in terms of how a node should behave in the environment. A nodelevel platform can be node-centric operating system, which provides hardware and networking abstractions of a sensor node to programmers, or it can be a language platform, which provides a library of components to programmers. A typical operating system abstracts the hardware platform by providing a set of services for applications, including file management, memory allocation, task scheduling, peripheral device drivers, and networking. For embedded systems, due to their highly specialized applications and limited resources, their operating systems make different trade-offs when providing these services. For example, if there is no file management requirement, then a file system is obviously not needed. If there is no dynamic memory allocation, then memory management can be simplified. If prioritization among tasks is critical, then a more elaborate priority scheduling mechanism may be added. 5 Operating System: TinyOS Tiny OS aims at supporting sensor network applications on resource-constrained hardware platforms, such as the Berkeley motes.
To ensure that an application code has an extremely small foot-print, TinyOS chooses to have no file system, supports only static memory allocation, implements a simple task model, and provides minimal device and networking abstractions. Furthermore, it takes a language-based application development approach so that only the necessary parts of the operating system are compiled with the application. To a certain extent, each TinyOS application is built into the operating system. Like many operating systems, TinyOS organizes components into layers. Intuitively, the lower a layer is, the ‘closer’ it is to the hardware; the higher a layer is, the closer it is to the application. In addition to the layers, TinyOS has a unique component architecture and provides as a library a set of system software components. A components specification is independent of the components implementation. Although most components encapsulate software functionalities, some are just thin wrappers around hardware. An application, typically developed in the nesC language, wires these components together with other application-specific components. A program executed in TinyOS has two contexts, tasks and events, which provide two sources of concurrency. Tasks are created (also called posted) by components to a task scheduler. The default implementation of the TinyOS scheduler maintains a task queue and invokes tasks according to the order in which they were posted. Thus tasks are deferred computation mechanisms. Tasks always run to completion without preempting or being preempted by other tasks. Thus tasks are non-preemptive. The scheduler invokes a new task from the task queue only when the current task has completed. When no tasks are available in the task queue, the scheduler puts the CPU into the sleep mode to save energy. The ultimate sources of triggered execution are events from hardware: clock, digital inputs, or other kinds of interrupts. The execution of an interrupt handler is called an event context. The processing of events also runs to completion, but it preempts tasks and can be preempted by other events. Because there is no preemption mechanism among tasks and because events always preempt tasks, programmers are required to chop their code, especially the code in the event contexts, into small execution pieces, so that it will not block other tasks for too long. Another trade-off between non-preemptive task execution and program reactiveness is the design of split-phase operations in TinyOS. Similar to the notion of asynchronous method calls in distributed computing, a split-phase operation separates the initiation of a method call from the return of the call. A call to split-phase operation returns immediately, without actually performing the body of the operation. The true execution of the operation is scheduled later; when the execution of the body finishes, the operation notifies the original caller through a separate method call. In TinyOS, resource contention is typically handled through explicit rejection of concurrent requests. All split-phase operations return Boolean values indicating whether a request to perform the operation is accepted.

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