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Note for Environmental Studies - ES by Krishna Mohan

  • Environmental Studies - ES
  • Note
  • Krishna University - Ku
  • Computer Science Engineering
  • B.Tech
  • 25 Topics
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Environmental studies BE Part Time Unit 1 1. Scope – Definition – Environment-Pollution. Objective: This lesson will enable the student to under stand the key definitions connected with the environment . The students will learn how the surrounding environment influences the sustenance. The lesson also describes the various related fields. Introduction: 29-09-2008 The life exists in and around with the help of physical and chemical parameters. The word environment is derived from French word ‘Environna’ which means surround or encircle. The general definition of Environment is sum of abiotic and biotic parameters surrounding are organism. As per the Environment (protection) Act 1986, environment includes all the physical, chemical and biological surrounding of an organism along with their interactions. Environment can be defined as ‘The sum total of water, air, and land area the inter relationships that exist among them and with the human beings, other living organisms and materials. AIR WATER HUMAN SOIL MATERIALS It can be drawn from the above figure that the surrounding air, water & soil environment will influence the existence. Similarly the anthropogenic activity will also influence the environment. The flora, fauna and micro-organisms interact with the non-living parameters and are influenced by different factors. There is a marked difference between the rural and urban environments. The urban environment is influenced by various developmental activities like modification of land scope, construction of multi ______ structures, commercial complexes, industries, transport etc. More ever due to the heavy population including migrants the urban areas nurture the slum development where amenities are bleak and become centers of epidemics. Multi Disciplinary Nature:

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The environmental studies need a knowledge in science, social science, law engineering as it deals with various aspects – life sciences like Zoology, Botany, Genetics, Bio Chemistry help in understanding the biotic components and their interactions. Basic concepts in chemistry, physics, geology, atmospheric science, oceanography & geography are essential to understand. Mathematics, Statistics and computer applications will help in environmental modeling. The social subjects like economics, management and sociology provide the inputs to study the socioeconomic aspects. Knowledge in Civil Engineering, hydraulic, Chemical and nano technology provide the technical solutions to environmental pollution control and waste treatment which are important for environmental protection. Environmental law provides the platform to fight for the environmental protection. Environmental education and mass communication are instruments in spreading environmental awareness. Scope: Environmental studies has a wide scope in pursuing different aspects of environment such as protection of environment, exportation of natural sources and management, pollution abatement, anthropogenic activities and environmental protection. Environmental studies can also be broadly divided based on specialized technical aspects like environmental engineering. Environmental management and environmental economics. For any industry clearances we required for which environmental impact studies are made. If adverse effects are expected then a plan to mitigate such effects to protect the environment from degradation. Further there are many areas to pursue research. R & D in Environment: The environmental scientists are involved in development cleaner technologies to protect environment by developing cleaner production technologies. The monitoring of environment in residential and industrial areas require well trained personnel to develop data base. Environmental management and environmental engineering are emerging new areas of career in industries and institution. The pollution control ___ gaining importance as the pro activists and environmental activists try to protect the interest of people. Market for pollution control technologies and experts in the field is increasing in the recent ___. In India ministry Environmental Forests at the centre and the state pollution control boards at the state level are implementry the standards fixed by central pollution control board. Now even the industries are also having an environmental cells to mitigrate pollution in their units. The trend is now turning towards ___ life green by adopting many pollution abating methods at local levels. To begin with various products which are eco-friendly in nature are given green label encouraging the sale. The quality of product is labeled ISO mark and if they are eco-friendly certification of ISO14000 is accorded. Environmental auditors and environmental managers will be of great demand in the f___. The information will percolate through media and the journalists are also turning green. Some T.V. channels will transmit

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information on pollution of air & water. Newspapers publish the details of SPM and concentration of gasses in the cities. The non-governmental organizations are engaged as ‘watch dogs’, raising objections in their areas when projects are degrading the environment and to unhealthy practices. Importance of Environment: The human body requires air and water on day to day basis. If the surrounding environment is unhealthy with polluted air and water the consumer will have to suffer. This may lead to different types of diseases ultimately to cancer which is dreaded disease. The united nations has identified certain days and declared the environment calendar. World wide the days are observed and various programmes are conducted to discuss the problems and solutions. Environmental Calendar 1. World wet land day – February 2nd 2. World forest day -- March 21st 3. World day of water – march 22nd 4. World meteorological day – March 23rd 5. Earth day – April 22nd 6. International Biodiversity day – May 22nd 7. Anti tobacco day – May 31st 8. World Environmental day – June 5th 9. World ocean day -- June 8th 10. World population day – July 11th 11. Ozone week – September (6th-23rd) 12. World car free day – September 22nd 13. Green consumer day – September 28th 14. World forest animals day – October 2nd 15. World habitat day – October 3rd 16. World animal welfare day – October 4th 17. Wild life week -- (1-7) 18. World conservation day -- October 24th 19. International day for natural disaster reduction – October 13th 20. International day for biological diversity – December 29th The local activities will have an influence globally such as global warming ozone hole, depletion of forest resources.

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1-10-2008 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES: The inorganic chemicals gels recycled through both the biological and the geological world, we call the overall cycles biogeochemical cycles. Each chemical has its own unique cycle but all of the cycles do have some things in common. Reservoir are those parts of the cycle where the chemical is held in large quantities for long period of time. In exchange pools the chemical is held for only a short time. The length of time a chemical is held in an exchange pools or a reservoir is termed its residence time. The ocean are a reservoir for water, while a cloud is an exchange pool. Water may reside in an ocean for thousands of years, but in a cloud for a few days only. The biotic community includes all living organisms. This community may serves as an exchange pool and also serve to move chemicals from one stage of the cycle to another. For instance, the trees of the tropical rain forest bring water up from the forest floor to be evapourated into the atmosphere. The energy for most of the transportation of chemicals form one place to another is provided either by the sum or by the heat released from the mantle and core of the earth. While all inorganic nutrients have cycles, we will focus only on five of the most important cycles-water, carbon (and oxygen), nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur. NITROGEN CYCLE: The nitrogen cycle represents one of the most important nutrient cycles found in terrestrial ecosystem. Nitrogen is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules like amino acids, protein and nucleic acids. The largest reservoir of nitrogen is the atmosphere where it exists as a gas, the atmospheric store is about one million times larger than the total nitrogen contained in living organisms. Other major store of nitrogen include organic matter in soil and the oceans. Despite its abundance in the atmosphere, nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Nitrogen cycle takes a lot of energy to get nitrogen gas to break up and combine with other things, such a carbon or oxygen. Nitrogen gas can be taken from the atmosphere in two basic ways. First, lightning provides enough energy to “burn” the nitrogen and fix it in the form of nitrate, which is a nitrogen with three oxygen attached. This process is duplicated in fertilizer factories to produce nitrogen fertilizers. The other form of nitrogen fixation is by nitrogen fixing bacteria. Human activities have severely altered the nitrogen cycle. Some of the major process involved in this alteration include the following; the application of nitrogen fertilizers to crops has caused increased rates of denitrification and leaching of nitrate into ground water. The addition nitrogen entering the ground water system eventually flows into streams, rivers and estuaries. In these systems, the added nitrogen can had eutrophication. Increased deposition of nitrogen from atmospheric sources because of fossil fuel combustion and forest burning. Both of

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