×
Don’t watch the clock; do what it does. Keep going.
--Your friends at LectureNotes
Close

Note for Human Resource Management - HRM By ASHUTOSH DASH

  • Human Resource Management - HRM
  • Note
  • 1146 Views
  • 13 Offline Downloads
  • Uploaded 1 year ago
0 User(s)
Download PDFOrder Printed Copy

Share it with your friends

Leave your Comments

Text from page-1

Human Resources Management {Unit – 01 and Unit – 02} 1. Define Human Resource Management. Discuss its Objectives, Scope and Functions. We often hear the term Human Resource Management, Employee Relations and Personnel Management used in the popular press as well as by Industry experts. Whenever we hear these terms, we conjure images of efficient managers busily going about their work in glitzy offices. HRM is that it is the process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner. This covers the fields of staffing (hiring people), retention of people, pay and perks setting and management, performance management, change management and taking care of exits from the company to round off the activities. This is the traditional definition of HRM which leads some experts to define it as a modern version of the Personnel Management function that was used earlier. The second definition of HRM encompasses the management of people in organizations from a macro perspective i.e. managing people in the form of a collective relationship between management and employees. This approach focuses on the objectives and outcomes of the HRM function. What this means is that the HR function in contemporary organizations is concerned with the notions of people enabling, people development and a focus on making the “employment relationship” fulfilling for both the management and employees. These definitions emphasize the difference between Personnel Management as defined in the second paragraph and human resource management as described in the third paragraph. To put it in one sentence, personnel management is essentially “workforce” centered whereas human resource management is “resource” centered. The key difference is HRM in recent times is about fulfilling management objectives of providing and deploying people and a greater emphasis on planning, monitoring and control. Whatever the definition we use the answer to the question as to “what is HRM?” is that it is all about people in organizations. No wonder that some MNC’s (Multinationals) call the HR managers as People Managers, People Enablers and the practice as people management. In the 21st century organizations, the HR manager or the people manager is no longer seen as someone who takes care of the activities described in the traditional way. In fact, most organizations have different departments dealing with Staffing, Payroll, and Retention etc. Instead, the HR manager is responsible for managing employee expectations vis-à-vis the management objectives and reconciling both to ensure employee fulfillment and realization of management objectives.

Text from page-2

Before we define HRM, it seems pertinent to first define the term ‘human resources’. In common parlance, human resources means the people. However, different management experts have defined human resources differently. For example, Michael J. Jucius has defined human resources as “a whole consisting of inter-related, inter-dependent and interacting physiological, psychological, sociological and ethical components”. According to Leon C. Megginson “From the national point of view human resources are knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, and attitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the view-point of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitude of its employees”. Sumantra Ghosal considers human resources as human capital. He classifies human capita into three categories-intellectual capitals, social capital and emotional capital. Intellectual capital consists of specialized knowledge, tacit knowledge and skills, cognitive complexity, and learning capacity. Social capital is made up of network of relationships, sociability, and trustworthiness Emotional capital consists of self-confidence, ambition and courage, risk-bearing ability, and resilience. Now it is clear from above definitions that human resources refer to the qualitative and quantitative aspects of employees working in an organisation. Let us now define human resource management. In simple words, HRM is a process of making the efficient and effective use of human resources so that the set goals are achieved. Let us also consider some important definitions of HRM. According to Flippo “Personnel management, or say, human resource management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement development compensation integration, 4intenance, and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organisational and social objectives are accomplished”. The National Institute of Personnel Management (NIPM) of India has defined human resource/personnel management as “that part of management which is concerned with people at work and with their relationship within an enterprise. Its aim is to bring together and develop into an effective organisation of the men and women who make up an enterprise and having regard for the well-being of the individuals and of working groups, to enable them to make their best contribution to its success”. According to Decenzo and Robbins “HRM is concerned with the people dimension in management. Since every organisation is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organisation are essential to achieving organisational

Text from page-3

objectives. This is true, regardless of the type of organisation-government, business, education, health, recreation, or social action”. Thus, HRM can be defined as a process of procuring, developing and maintaining competent human resources in the organisation so that the goals of an organisation are achieved in an effective and efficient manner. In short, HRM is an art of managing people at work in such a manner that they give their best to the organisation for achieving its set goals. Objectives: The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of right people for right jobs so as the organizational goals are achieved effectively. This primary objective can further be divided into the following sub-objectives: 1. To help the organisation to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees. 2. To utilize the available human resources effectively. 3. To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualization. 4. To develop and maintain the quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organisation a desirable personal and social situation. 5. To help maintain ethical policies and behavior inside and outside the organisation. 6. To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management. 7. To reconcile individual/group goals with organizational goals. Scope: The scope of HRM is, indeed, very vast and wide. It includes all activities starting from manpower planning till employee leaves the organisation. Accordingly, the scope of HRM consists of acquisition, development, maintenance/retention, and control of human resources in the organisation. The National Institute of personnel Management, Calcutta has specified the scope of HRM as follows: 1. The Labour or Personnel Aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay-off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity, etc.

Text from page-4

2. Welfare Aspect: It deals with working conditions, and amenities such as canteen, crèches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc. 3. Industrial Relations Aspects: This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary actions, settlement of disputes, etc. Functions: The definition of HRM is based on what managers do. The functions performed by managers are common to all organizations. For the convenience of study, the function performed by the resource management can broadly be classified into two categories, viz. (1) Managerial functions, and (2) Operative functions These are discussed in turn. (1) Managerial Functions: Planning: Planning is a predetermined course of actions. It is a process of determining the organisational goals and formulation of policies and programmes for achieving them. Thus planning is future oriented concerned with clearly charting out the desired direction of business activities in future. Forecasting is one of the important elements in the planning process. Other functions of managers depend on planning function. Organizing: Organizing is a process by which the structure and allocation of jobs are determined. Thus organizing involves giving each subordinate a specific task establishing departments, delegating authority to subordinates, establishing channels of authority and communication, coordinating the work of subordinates, and so on. Staffing: TOs is a process by which managers select, train, promote and retire their subordinates This involves deciding what type of people should be hired, recruiting prospective employees, selecting employees, setting performance standard, compensating employees, evaluating performance, counseling employees, training and developing employees.

Lecture Notes