product are also decided by the marketing department.Marketing also works out the
manufacturing costs to assess the economic viabilityof the product.
ii. Product Design: The design department of the company establishes the initialdatabase for
production of a proposed product. In a CIM system this isaccomplished through activities such
as geometric modeling and computer aideddesign while considering the product requirements
and concepts generated bythe creativity of the design engineer. Configuration management is an
importantactivity in many designs. Complex designs are usually carried out by severalteams
working simultaneously, located often in different parts of the world. Thedesign process is
constrained by the costs that will be incurred in actual productionand by the capabilities of the
available production equipment and processes. Thedesign process creates the database required
to manufacture the part.
iii. Planning: The planning department takes the database established by thedesign department
and enriches it with production data and information toproduce a plan for the production of the
product. Planning involves severalsubsystems dealing with materials, facility, process, tools,
manpower, capacity,scheduling, outsourcing, assembly, inspection, logistics etc. In a CIM
system,this planning process should be constrained by the production costs and bythe production
equipment and process capability, in order to generate anoptimized plan.
iv. Purchase: The purchase departments is responsible for placing the purchaseorders and follow
up, ensure quality in the production process of the vendor,receive the items, arrange for
inspection and supply the items to the stores orarrange timely delivery depending on the
production schedule for eventual supplyto manufacture and assembly.
v. Manufacturing Engineering: Manufacturing Engineering is the activity of carryingout the
production of the product, involving further enrichment of the databasewith performance data
and information about the production equipment andprocesses. In CIM, this requires activities
like CNC programming, simulation andcomputer aided scheduling of the production activity.
This should include onlinedynamic scheduling and control based on the real time performance of
theequipment and processes to assure continuous production activity. Often, theneed to meet
fluctuating market demand requires the manufacturing systemflexible and agile.
vi. Factory Automation Hardware: Factory automation equipment further enrichesthe database
with equipment and process data, resident either in the operator orthe equipment to carry out the
production process. In CIM system this consistsof computer controlled process machinery such
as CNC machine tools, flexiblemanufacturing systems (FMS), Computer controlled robots,
material handlingsystems, computer controlled assembly systems, flexibly automated inspection
systems and so on.
vii. Warehousing: Warehousing is the function involving storage and retrieval ofraw materials,
components, finished goods as well as shipment of items. Intoday’s complex outsourcing
scenario and the need for just-in-time supply ofcomponents and subsystems, logistics and supply
chain management assumegreat importance.
viii. Finance: Finance deals with the resources pertaining to money. Planningof investment,
working capital, and cash flow control, realization ofreceipts, accounting and allocation of funds
are the major tasks of thefinance departments.
1.4 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
Concurrent engineering or Simultaneous Engineering is a methodology of
restructuringthe product development activity in a manufacturing organization using a
crossfunctional team approach and is a technique adopted to improve the efficiency ofproduct
design and reduce the product development cycle time. This is also sometimesreferred to as