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Power Plant Engineering

by Anna SuperkingsAnna Superkings
Type: NoteInstitute: ANNA UNIVERISTY Specialization: Mechanical EngineeringViews: 279Uploaded: 4 months ago

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Anna Superkings
Anna Superkings
Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology FATIMA MICHAEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Senkottai Village, Madurai – Sivagangai Main Roa, Madurai -625 020 An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution ME 6701 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING (R-2013) REGULATION 2013 LTPC 30 0 3 OBJECTIVES: Providing an overview of Power Plants and detailing the role of Mechanical Engineers in their operation and maintenance. UNIT I COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS 10 Rankine cycle - improvisations, Layout of modern coal power plant, Super Critical Boilers, FBC Boilers, Turbines, Condensers, Steam & Heat rate, Subsystems of thermal power plants – Fuel and ash handling, Draught system, Feed water treatment. Binary Cycles and Cogeneration systems. UNIT II DIESEL, GAS TURBINE AND COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANTS 10 Otto, Diesel, Dual & Brayton Cycle - Analysis & Optimisation. Components of Diesel and Gas Turbine power plants. Combined Cycle Power Plants. Integrated Gasifier based Combined Cycle systems. UNIT III NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS 7 Basics of Nuclear Engineering, Layout and subsystems of Nuclear Power Plants, Working of Nuclear Reactors : Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), CANada Deuterium-Uranium reactor (CANDU), Breeder, Gas Cooled and Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. Safety measures for Nuclear Power plants. UNIT IV POWER FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY 10 Hydro Electric Power Plants – Classification, Typical Layout and associated components including Turbines. Principle, Construction and working of Wind, Tidal, Solar Photo Voltaic (SPV), SolarThermal, Geo Thermal, Biogas and Fuel Cell power systems. UNIT V ENERGY, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF POWER PLANTS 8 Power tariff types, Load distribution parameters, load curve, Comparison of site selection criteria,relative merits & demerits, Capital & Operating Cost of different power plants. Pollution control technologies including Waste Disposal Options for Coal and Nuclear Power Plants. TOTAL : 45 PERIODS OUTCOMES: Upon completion of this course, the students can able to understand different types of power plant, and its functions and their flow lines and issues related to them. Analyse and solve energy and economic related issues in power sectors. TEXT BOOK: 1. Nag. P.K., "Power Plant Engineering", Third Edition, Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2008. REFERENCES: 1. El-Wakil. M.M., "Power Plant Technology", Tata McGraw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 2010. 2. Black & Veatch, Springer, "Power Plant Engineering", 1996. 3. Thomas C. Elliott, Kao Chen and Robert C. Swanekamp, "Power Plant Engineering Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology
Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology UNIT I - COAL BASED THERMAL POWER PLANTS THERMAL POWER PLANT: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large proportion of CO2 is produced by the worlds fossil fired thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread. The four main circuits one would come across in any thermal power plant layout are -Coal and Ash Circuit -Air and Gas Circuit - Feed Water and Steam Circuit - Cooling Water Circuit Coal and Ash Circuit Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology
Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology Coal and Ash circuit in a thermal power plant layout mainly takes care of feeding the boiler with coal from the storage for combustion. The ash that is generated during combustion is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to the ash storage by scrap conveyors. The combustion in the Coal and Ash circuit is controlled by regulating the speed and the quality of coal entering the grate and the damper openings. Air and Gas Circuit Air from the atmosphere is directed into the furnace through the air preheated by the action of a forced draught fan or induced draught fan. The dust from the air is removed before it enters the combustion chamber of the thermal power plant layout. The exhaust gases from the combustion heat the air, which goes through a heat exchanger and is finally let off into the environment. Feed Water and Steam Circuit The steam produced in the boiler is supplied to the turbines to generate power. The steam that is expelled by the prime mover in the thermal power plant layout is then condensed in a condenser for re-use in the boiler. The condensed water is forced through a pump into the feed water heaters where it is heated using the steam from different points in the turbine. To make up for the lost steam and water while passing through the various components of the thermal power plant layout, feed water is supplied through external sources. Feed water is purified in a purifying plant to reduce the dissolve salts that could scale the boiler tubes. Cooling Water Circuit The quantity of cooling water required to cool the steam in a thermal power plant layout is significantly high and hence it is supplied from a natural water source like a lake or a river. After passing through screens that remove particles that can plug the condenser tubes in a thermal power plant layout, it is passed through the condenser where the steam is condensed. The water is finally discharged back into the water source after cooling. Cooling water circuit can also be a closed system where the cooled water is sent through cooling towers for re -use in the power plant. The cooling water circulation in the condenser of a thermal power plant layout helps in maintaining a low pressure in the condenser all throughout. All these circuits are integrated to form a thermal power plant layout that generates electricity to meet our needs. Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology
Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology Rankine cycle - improvisations Fatima Michael College of Engineering & Technology

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