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Note for Compiler Design - CD By ANNA SUPERKINGS

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LECTURE N0TES Executing a program written n HLL programming language is basically of two parts. the source program must first be compiled translated into a object program. Then the results object program is loaded into a memory executed. Source pgm Obj pgm input Compiler Obj pgm obj pgm opj pgm output 1.4 ASSEMBLER: programmers found it difficult to write or read programs in machine language. They begin to use a mnemonic (symbols) for each machine instruction, which they would subsequently translate into machine language. Such a mnemonic machine language is now called an assembly language. Programs known as assembler were written to automate the translation of assembly language in to machine language. The input to an assembler program is called source program, the output is a machine language translation (object program). 1.5 INTERPRETER: An interpreter is a program that appears to execute a source program as if it were machine language. Languages such as BASIC, SNOBOL, LISP can be translated using interpreters. JAVA also uses interpreter. The process of interpretation can be carried out in following phases. 1. Lexical analysis 2. Synatx analysis 3. Semantic analysis 4. Direct Execution Advantages: Modification of user program can be easily made and implemented as execution proceeds. Type of object that denotes a various may change dynamically. Debugging a program and finding errors is simplified task for a program used for interpretation. The interpreter for the language makes it machine independent. CS6660 COMPILER DESIGN ` UNIT-1

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LECTURE N0TES Disadvantages: The execution of the program is slower. Memory consumption is more. 2 Loader and Link-editor: Once the assembler procedures an object program, that program must be placed into memory and executed. The assembler could place the object program directly in memory and transfer control to it, thereby causing the machine language program to be execute. This would waste core by leaving the assembler in memory while the user‟s program was being executed. Also the programmer would have to retranslate his program with each execution, thus wasting translation time. To over come this problems of wasted translation time and memory. System programmers developed another component called loader “A loader is a program that places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.” It would be more efficient if subroutines could be translated into object form the loader could”relocate” directly behind the user‟s program. The task of adjusting programs o they may be placed in arbitrary core locations is called relocation. Relocation loaders perform four functions. 1.6 TRANSLATOR A translator is a program that takes as input a program written in one language and produces as output a program in another language. Beside program translation, the translator performs another very important role, the error-detection. Any violation of d HLL specification would be detected and reported to the programmers. Important role of translator are: 1 Translating the hll program input into an equivalent ml program. 2 Providing diagnostic messages wherever the programmer violates specification of the hll. 1.7 TYPE OF TRANSLATORS:INTERPRETOR COMPILER PREPROSSESSOR CS6660 COMPILER DESIGN UNIT-1

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LECTURE N0TES 1.9 STRUCTURE OF THE COMPILER DESIGN Phases of a compiler: A compiler operates in phases. A phase is a logically interrelated operation that takes source program in one representation and produces output in another representation. The phases of a compiler are shown in below There are two phases of compilation. a. Analysis (Machine Independent/Language Dependent) b. Synthesis(Machine Dependent/Language independent) Compilation process is partitioned into PHASES OF A COMPILER No-of-sub processes called ‘phases’. Lexical Analysis:LA or Scanners reads the source program one character at a time, carving the source program into a sequence of automic units called tokens. Syntax Analysis:The second stage of translation is called Syntax analysis or parsing. In this phase expressions, statements, declarations etc… are identified by using the results of lexical analysis. Syntax analysis is aided by using techniques based on formal grammar of the programming language. CS6660 COMPILER DESIGN ` UNIT-1

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LECTURE N0TES Intermediate Code Generations:An intermediate representation of the final machine language code is produced. This phase bridges the analysis and synthesis phases of translation. Code Optimization :This is optional phase described to improve the intermediate code so that the output runs faster and takes less space. Code Generation:The last phase of translation is code generation. A number of optimizations to reduce the length of machine language program are carried out during this phase. The output of the code generator is the machine language program of the specified computer. Table Management (or) Book-keeping:This is the portion to keep the names used by the program and records essential information about each. The data structure used to record this information called a „Symbol Table‟. Error Handlers:It is invoked when a flaw error in the source program is detected. The output of LA is a stream of tokens, which is passed to the next phase, the syntax analyzer or parser. The SA groups the tokens together into syntactic structure called as expression. Expression may further be combined to form statements. The syntactic structure can be regarded as a tree whose leaves are the token called as parse trees. The parser has two functions. It checks if the tokens from lexical analyzer, occur in pattern that are permitted by the specification for the source language. It also imposes on tokens a tree-like structure that is used by the sub-sequent phases of the compiler. Example, if a program contains the expression A+/B after lexical analysis this expression might appear to the syntax analyzer as the token sequence id+/id. On seeing the /, the syntax analyzer should detect an error situation, because the presence of these two adjacent binary operators violates the formulations rule of an expression. Syntax analysis is to make explicit the hierarchical structure of the incoming token stream by identifying which parts of the token stream should be grouped. Example, (A/B*C has two possible interpretations.) 1, divide A by B and then multiply by C or 2, multiply B by C and then use the result to divide A. each of these two interpretations can be represented in terms of a parse tree. Intermediate Code Generation:The intermediate code generation uses the structure produced by the syntax analyzer to create a stream of simple instructions. Many styles of intermediate code are possible. One common style uses instruction with one operator and a small number of operands. The output of the syntax analyzer is some representation of a parse tree. the intermediate code generation phase transforms this parse tree into an intermediate language representation of the source program. CS6660 COMPILER DESIGN ` UNIT-1

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