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Power Plant Engineering

by Kumar Sanjeeb Shaw
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Power Plant Engineering by Kumar Sanjeeb Shaw

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Kumar Sanjeeb Shaw
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Kumar Sanjeeb Shaw
Kumar Sanjeeb Shaw
Edited with the trial version of Foxit Advanced PDF Editor To remove this notice, visit: www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping DIRECTORATE OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION & TRAINING, ODISHA, CUTTACK CONTENT GENERATION OF EDUSAT PROGRAMME BRANCH – MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (DIPLOMA) SEMESTER – VI SUBJECT – CODE – ELECTIVE- 1 SUBJECT NAME – POWER PLANT ENGINEERING Prepared by : E.r. S.Ray (Workshop Superintendent, JES, Jharsuguda) Er. G. Ghadai (Workshop Superintendent, GP, BBSR) Er. A.K. Biswal (Lecturer Mechanical, GP, Kandhamala)
Edited with the trial version of Foxit Advanced PDF Editor POWER PLANT ENGINEERING To remove this notice, visit: www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping CHAPTER-I 1.0 INTRODUCTION Energy: Energy possesses the ability to produce a dynamic, vital effect. Energy exists in various forms. e.g. mechanical, thermal, electrical etc. One form of energy can transform to other by suitable arrangements. Power: Any Physical unit of energy when divided by a unit of time automatically becomes a unit of power. Power can be defined as rate of flow of energy and can state that a power plant is a unit built for production and delivery of flow of mechanical and electrical energy. With the advancement of technology the power consumption is rising steadily. This necessitates that in addition to the existing source of power such as coal, water, petroleum etc. other source of energy should be searched out and new and more efficient ways of producing energy should be decided. 1.1. SOURCES OF ENERGY: The various sources of energy are:  Fuels- 1. Solids-Coal, Coke Anthracite etc. 2. Liquids-Petroleum and its derivates 3. Gases-Natural gas, blast furnace gas etc  Energy stored in water  Nuclear energy  Wind energy  Solar energy  Tidal energy  Geothermal energy  Thermoelectric power 1.1.1. Fuels: Fuels may be chemical or nuclear. A chemical fuel is a substance which releases heat energy on combustion. The principal combustible elements of each fuel are carbon and hydrogen. Solid Fuels: Coal: Coal is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide releases. Its main constituents are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, moisture and ash. Coal passes through different stages during its formation from vegetation. Coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and/or heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals. A fossil fuel, coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat, which in turn is converted into lignite, then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal, and lastly anthracite. This involves biological and geological processes that take place over a long period. [1]
Edited with the trial version of Foxit Advanced PDF Editor To remove this notice, visit: www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping Peat: It is the 1st stage of formation of coal from wood. It contains huge amount of moisture and therefore it is dried for 1 to 2 months before it is put to use. It is used as domestic fuel. Lignite and Brown Coals: These are intermediate stages between peat and coals. They have a woody and often a clay like appearance associated with high moisture, high ash, low heat contents. Lignite are usually amorphous in character and impose transport difficulties as they break easily. They burn with a smoky flame. Bituminous Coal: It burns with long yellow and smoky flames and has high percentages of volatile matter. Semi bituminous Coal: It is softer than anthracite and burns with a very small amount of smoke. It has tendency to break into small sizes during storage and transportation. Semi Anthracite: It has less fixed carbon and less luster as compared to true anthracite and gives out longer and more luminous flames when burnt. Anthracite: It is very hard coal and has a shining black luster. It ignites slowly unless the furnace temperature is high. It burns either with very short blue flames or without flames and very suitable for stem generation. Wood charcoal: It is obtained by destructive distillation of wood. During the process the volatile matter and water are expelled. The physical properties of the residue(Charcoal) however depends upon the rate of heating and temperature. Coke: It consists of carbon, mineral matter with sulphur and small quantities of hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus. It is solid residue after the destructive distillation of coals. It is smokeless and clear fuel and can be produced by several processes. It is mainly used in blast furnace to produce heat. Briquettes: These are prepared from fine coals by compressing the material under high pressure. Analysis of Coal: The following two types of analysis are done on the coals: 1. Proximate analysis 2. Ultimate analysis [2]
Edited with the trial version of Foxit Advanced PDF Editor To remove this notice, visit: www.foxitsoftware.com/shopping In proximate analysis individual elements are not determined, only the percentage of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash are determined. In ultimate analysis the percentage of various elements are determined. Properties of Coal:       Energy content or heating value Sulphur content Burning Characteristics Grind ability Weather ability Ash softening temperature A good coal should have:Small percentage of sulphur Good burning characteristics Liquid Fuels: The chief sources of liquid fuels are petroleum which is obtained from wells under the earth’s crust. These fuels have proved more advantageous in comparison to solid fuels. Advantages:  Require less space for storages  Higher calorific values  Easy control of consumption  Staff economy  Absence of danger from spontaneous combustion  Easy handling and transportation  Cleanliness  No ash problem  Non-deterioration of the oil in storage Petroleum: These are different opinions regarding the origin of petroleum. Now it is accepted that Petroleum has originated probably from organic matter like fish and plant life etc., by bacterial action or by their distillation under pressure and heat. It consists of a mixture of gasses, liquids, and solid hydrocarbons with small amount of nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Gaseous Fuels: Natural Gas: The main constituents of natural gas are methane and ethane. Natural gas is used alternately or simultaneously with oil for internal combustion engine. Advantages:  Better control of combustion  Much less excess air is needed for complete combustion  Economy in fuel and more efficiency of furnace operation  Easy maintenance of oxidizing or reducing atmosphere  Cleanliness  No problem of storage  Distribution over a wide area is easy [3]

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