Lecture Notes on Power System Engineering II Subject Code:BEE1604 6th Semester B.Tech. (Electrical & Electronics Engineering)
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(6 SEMESTER) POWER SYSTEM-II (3-1-0) MODULE-I (10 HOURS) Lines Constants: Resistance, inductance and capacitance of single and three phase lines with symmetrical and unsymmetrical spacing transposition, charging current, skin effect and proximity effect, Performance of transmission Lines: Analysis of short, medium and long lines, equivalentcircuit, representation of the lines and calculation of transmission parameters, Power flow through transmission line, Power circle diagram, Series and shunt compensation. MODULE-II (10 HOURS) Corona: Power loss due to corona, practical importance of corona, use of bundled conductors in E.H.V. transmission lines and its advantages, Overhead line Insulators, voltage distribution in suspension type insulators, string efficiency, grading. Sag and stress calculation of overhead conductors, vibration dampers Under Ground Cable: Type and construction, grading of cables, capacitance in 3 core cables and dielectric loss in cables. MODULE-III (10 HOURS) Definition of the load flow problem, Network model formulation, A load flow sample study,Computational aspect of the load flow problem. Gauss siedel and Newton Raphson method for power flow fast decoupled load flow, On load tap changing transformer and block regulating transformer, effects of regulating transformers. MODULE-IV (10 HOURS) Economic Operation of Power System: Distribution offload between units within a plant, Transmission losses as function of plant generation, Calculation of loss coefficients, Distribution of loads between plants with special reference to steam and hydel plants, Automatic load dispatching. Introduction to Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS), SVC, TCSC, SSSC, STATCOM and UPFC BOOKS . John J Grainger, W. D. Stevenson, “Power System Analysis”, TMH Publication . I. J. Nagrath & D. P. Kothari, “Power System Analysis”, TMH Publication
MODULE I Transmission line Conductors Commonly used conductor materials: The most commonly used conductor materials for over head lines are copper, aluminium, steelcored aluminium, galvanised steel and cadmium copper. The choice of a particular material will depend upon the cost, the required electrical and mechanical properties and the local conditions. All conductors used for overhead lines are preferably stranded in order to increase the flexibility.In stranded conductors, there is generally one central wire and round this, successive layers of wires containing 6, 12, 18, 24 ...... wires. Thus, if there are n layers, the total number of individual wires is 3n(n + 1) + 1. In the manufacture of stranded conductors, the consecutive layers of wires are twisted or spiralled in opposite directions so that layers are bound together. Types of Conductors 1. Copper. Copper is an ideal material for overhead lines owing to its high electrical conductivity and greater tensile strength. It is always used in the hard drawn form as stranded conductor. Although hard drawing decreases the electrical conductivity slightly yet it increases the tensile strength considerably. Copper has high current density i.e., the current carrying capacity of copper per unit of Xsectional area is quite large. This leads to two advantages. Firstly, smaller X-sectional area of conductor is required and secondly, the area offered by the conductor to wind loads is reduced. Moreover, this metal is quite homogeneous, durable and has high scrap value. There is hardly any doubt that copper is an ideal material for transmission and distribution of electric power. However, due to its higher cost and non-availability, it is rarely used for these purposes. Now-a-days the trend is to use aluminium in place of copper. 2. Aluminium. Aluminium is cheap and light as compared to copper but it has much smaller conductivity and tensile strength. The relative comparison of the two materials is briefed below: (i) The conductivity of aluminium is 60% that of copper. The smaller conductivity of aluminium means that for any particular transmission efficiency, the X-sectional area of conductor must be larger in aluminium than in copper. For the same resistance, the diameter of aluminium