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Note for Comprehension - C By Bput Toppers

  • Comprehension - C
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Index Lecture 1. Comprehension - Textual Grammar 2. Comprehension: Reading Comprehension 3. Synonyms, List of synonyms, Antonyms 4. Verbal Ability 5. Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension 6. Reading Comprehension and answering the questions 7. Homonyms 8. Homophones 9. Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension 10. Reading Comprehension and answering the questions 11. Functional Grammar, Tenses, Active voice and Passive voice 12. Functional Grammar, Articles, Prepositions, Parts of Speech 13. Business and Personal Correspondence 14. The Style & Importance 15. Precis Writing, Summarizing 16. Interviews & Group Discussions Page No 5-8 9-16 17-23 24-27 28-30 31-35 36-37 38-39 40-42 43-49 50-53 54-56 57-63 64-67 68-72 73-79

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Comprehension & Developing Communication Skills in English 1. Comprehension - Textual Grammar You may or may not agree with his views but the essay is certainly worth reading and talking about. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. Even if one didn’t know from concrete examples (the 1936 Olympic Games, for instance) that international sporting contests lead to orgies of hatred, one could deduce it form general principles. Nearly all the sports practised nowadays are competitive. You play to win, and the game has little meaning unless you do your utmost to win. On the village green, where you pick up sides and no feeling of local patriotism is involved, it is possible to play simply for the fun and exercise: but as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit wil l be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are aroused. Anyone who has played even in a school football match knows this. At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare. But the signif icant thing is not the behavior of the player but the attitude of the spectators: and, behind the spectators, of the nations who work themselves into furies over these absurd contests, and seriously believe-at any rate for short periods- that running, jumping and kicking a ball are tests of natio nal virtue. 5

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Comprehension & Developing Communication Skills in English Even a leisurely game like cricket, demanding grace rather than strength, can cause much ill-will, as we saw in the controversy over body- line bowling and over the rough tactics of the Australian team that visited England in 1921. Football, a game in which everyone gets hurt and every nation has its own style of play which seems unfair to foreigners, is far worse. Worst of all is boxing. One of the most horrible sights in the world is a flight between white and coloured boxers before a mixed audience. But a boxing audience is always disgusting, and the behavior of the women, in particular, is such that the army, I believe, does not allow them to attend its contests. At any rate, two or three years ago, when Home Guards and regular troops were holding a boxing tournament, I was placed on guard at the door of the hall, w ith orders to keep the women out. In England, the obsession with sport is bad enough, but even fiercer passions are aroused in your countries where games playing and nationalism are both recent developments. In countries like India or Burma, it is necessary at football matches to have strong cordons of police to keep the crowd form invading the filed. In Burma, I have seen the supporters of one side break through the police and disable the goalkeeper of the opposing side at a critical moment. The first big football match that was played in Spain about fifteen years ago led to an uncontrollable riot. As soon as strong feelings of rivalry are aroused, that notion of playing the game according to the rules always vanishes. People want to see one side on top and the other side humiliated, and they forget that victory gained through cheating or through the intervention of the crowd is meaningless. Even when the spectators don’t intervene physically they try to influence the game by cheering their own side and ‘rattling’; opposing players with boos and insults. Serious sport has nothing to do with fair play. It is bound up with hatred, jealousy, boastfulness, disregard of all rules and sa distic pleasure in witnessing violence: in other words it is war minus the shooting. Instead of blah- blahing about a clean healthy rivalry on the football field and the great part played by the Olympic Games in bringing the nations together, it 6

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