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Note for Solid Waste Management - SWM by Ayush Agrawal

  • Solid Waste Management - SWM
  • Note
  • Biju Patnaik University of Technology Rourkela Odisha - BPUT
  • 9 Topics
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Solid waste management 10CV757 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Sub code No. of Lecture Hrs/Week Total no. of Lecture hrs : 10CV757 : 04 : 52 IA Marks : 25 Exam Hrs : 03 Exam Marks : 100 PART - A UNIT – 1 INTRODUCTION: Definition, Land pollution – scope and importance of solid waste management, functional elements of solid waste management SOURCES: Classification and characteristics – municipal, commercial & industrial. Methods of quantification. 08 Hours UNIT -2COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION: Systems of collection,collection equipment, garbage chutes, transfer stations – bailing andcompacting, route optimization techniques and problems. 06 Hours UNIT -3TREATMENT / PROCESSING TECHNIQUES: Components separation,volume reduction, size reduction, chemical reduction and biologicalprocessing problems. 6 Hours UNIT -4INCINERATION: Process – 3 T‟s, factors affecting incineration process,incinerators – types, prevention of air pollution, pyrolsis, design criteria forincineration. 7 Hours PART -B UNIT -5 COMPOSTING: Aerobic and anaerobic composting, factors affecting composting, Indore and Bangalore processes, mechanical and semi mechanical composting processes. Vermicomposting. 6 Hours UNIT -6 SANITARY LAND FILLING: Different types, trench area, Ramp and pit method, site selection, basic steps involved, cell design, prevention of site pollution, leachate & gas collection and control methods, geosynthetic fabrics in sanitary land fills. 8 Hours UNIT -7DISPOSAL METHODS: Open dumping – selection of site, ocean disposal,feeding to hogs, incineration, pyrolsis, composting, sanitary land filling,merits and demerits, biomedical wastes and disposal. 6 Hours UNIT -8 RECYCLE AND REUSE: Material and energy recovery operations, reuse in other industries, plastic wastes, environmental significance and reuse. 5 Hours Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 1

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Solid waste management 10CV757 TABLE OF CONTENT Unit No. I II III IV V VI VII VIII Topic Introduction Collection and Transportation Treatment / Processing Techniques Incineration Composting Sanitary Land Filling Disposal Methods Recycle and Reuse Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page No. 3 12 24 35 51 58 63 73 Page 2

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Solid waste management 10CV757 UNIT – I INTRODUCTION Solid waste Solid wastes are the wastes arising from human activities and are normally solid as opposed to liquid or gaseous and are discarded as useless or unwanted. Focused on urban waste (MSW) as opposed to agricultural, mining and industrial wastes. Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is the term applied to all the activities associated with the management of society's wastes. In medieval times, wastes discarded in the streets led to the breeding of rats and the associated fleas which carried the bubonic plague. The lack of management of solid wastes thus led to the Black Plague which killed half of 14th century Europe. USPHS has traced 22 human diseases to improper solid waste management. Solid wastes also have a great potential to pollute the air and water. Mining tailings from Colorado gold and silver mines will probably being spilling arsenic into the water supply forever. Just finished toxic metal treatment facility in Park City, Utah. Materials Flow - The best way to reduce solid wastes is not to create them in the first place. Others methods include: decrease consumption of raw material and increase the rate of recovery of waste materials. Technological advances - Increased use of plastics and fast, pre-prepared foods. Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is the control of : - generation, materials are identified as being no longer value - storage, management of wastes until they are put into a container - Collection, gathering of solid wastes and recyclable materials and the transport of these materials where the collection vehicle is emptied. 50% or higher of the total cost. - Processing, source separated (at the home) vs. commingled (everything together) is a big issue. Includes: physical processes such as shredding and screening, removal of bulky material, and chemical and biological processes such as incineration and composting. - transfer and transport, small trucks to the biggest trucks allowable - Disposal of solid waste, landfilling with or without attempting to recover resources. In a manner that is in accord with: - public health - economics - engineering - conservation - aesthetics - public attitudes Final disposal at the turn of the century included: - dumping on land in - dumping water - plowing into soil - feeding to hogs - incineration Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 3

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Solid waste management 10CV757 Waste Generation Waste handling, separation, storage and processing at the source Collection Separation and processing and transformation of solid waste Transfer and Transport Disposal Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) ISWM - defines as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve specific waste management objectives and goals. AB939 in California: 25% reduction by 1995, 50% reduction by 2000. Hierarchy - adopted by EPA to rank actions: - source reduction, most useful, may involve design of packaging with minimum toxic content, minimum volume or a longer useful life. - recycling - waste combustion (transformation), physical, chemical and biological alteration of the waste for the purposes of: - improving efficiency - recover reusable material, glass - recover conversion products, compost - landfilling, material that: - cannot be recycles - has no further use - residual matter attendant to another process, ash left over after combustion Legislative Trends and Impacts Rivers and Harbors Act, 1899, regulated the dumping of debris in navigable waters and adjacent land. The idea was to protect navigation. Solid Waste Disposal Act, 1965, PL89-272, - The intent was: - Promote solid waste management and resource recovery. Department of Civil Engineering, ACE Page 4

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