Machine Dynamics – I Lecture Note By Er. Debasish Tripathy ( Assist. Prof. Mechanical Engineering Department, VSSUT, Burla, Orissa,India) Syllabus: Module – I 1. Mechanisms: Basic Kinematic concepts & definitions, mechanisms, link, kinematic pair, degrees of freedom, kinematic chain, degrees of freedom for plane mechanism, Gruebler’s equation, inversion of mechanism, four bar chain & their inversions, single slider crank chain, double slider crank chain & their inversion.(8) Module – II 2. Kinematics analysis: Determination of velocity using graphical and analytical techniques, instantaneous center method, relative velocity method, Kennedy theorem, velocity in four bar mechanism, slider crank mechanism, acceleration diagram for a slider crank mechanism, Klein’s construction method, rubbing velocity at pin joint, coriolli’s component of acceleration & it’s applications. (12) Module – III 3. Inertia force in reciprocating parts: Velocity & acceleration of connecting rod by analytical method, piston effort, force acting along connecting rod, crank effort, turning moment on crank shaft, dynamically equivalent system, compound pendulum, correction couple, friction, pivot & collar friction, friction circle, friction axis. (6) 4. Friction clutches: Transmission of power by single plate, multiple & cone clutches, belt drive, initial tension, Effect of centrifugal tension on power transmission, maximum power transmission(4). Module – IV 5. Brakes & Dynamometers: Classification of brakes, analysis of simple block, band & internal expanding shoe brakes, braking of a vehicle, absorbing & transmission
dynamometers, prony brakes, rope brakes, band brake dynamometer, belt transmission dynamometer & torsion dynamometer.(7) 6. Gear trains: Simple trains, compound trains, reverted train & epicyclic train. (3) Mechanism and Machines Mechanism: If a number of bodies are assembled in such a way that the motion of one causes constrained and predictable motion to the others, it is known as a mechanism. A mechanism transmits and modifies a motion. Machine: A machine is a mechanism or a combination of mechanisms which, apart from imparting definite motions to the parts, also transmits and modifies the available mechanical energy into some kind of desired work. It is neither a source of energy nor a producer of work but helps in proper utilization of the same. The motive power has to be derived from external sources. A slider - crank mechanism converts the reciprocating motion of a slider into rotary motion of the crank or vice versa. Figure-1 (Available) force on the piston → slider crank + valve mechanism → Torque of the crank shaft (desired). Examples of slider crank mechanism → Automobile Engine, reciprocating pumps, reciprocating compressor, and steam engines. Examples of mechanisms: type writer, clocks, watches, spring toys. Rigid body: A body is said to be rigid if under the action of forces, it does not suffer any distortion.
Resistant bodies: Those which are rigid for the purposes they have to serve. Semi rigid body: Which are normally flexible, but under certain loading conditions act as rigid body for the limited purpose. Example: 1. Belt is rigid when subjected to tensile forces. So belt-drive acts as a resistant body. 2. Fluid is resistant body at compressive load. Link: A resistant body or a group of resistant bodies with rigid connections preventing their relative movement is known as a link. A link may also be defined as a member or a combination of members of a mechanism, connecting other members and having motion relative to them. A link is also known as kinematic link or element. Links can be classified into binary, ternary, quarternary, etc, depending upon their ends on which revolute or turning pairs can be placed. Figure-2 Kinematic pair: A kinematic pair or simply a pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them. Types of kinematic pairs: Kinematic pairs can be classified according to (i) Nature of contact (ii) Nature of mechanical constraint (iii) Nature of relative motion Kinematic pairs according to nature of contact (a) Lower pair: A pair of links having surface or area contact between the members is known as a lower pair. Example: – Nut and screw, shaft rotating in bearing, all pairs of slider crank mechanism, universal joint etc. (b) Higher pair: When a pair has a point or line contact between the links, it is known as a higher pair. Example: – Wheel rolling on a surface, cam and follower pair, tooth gears, ball and roller bearings.
Kinematic pairs according to nature of mechanical constraint (a) Closed pair : When the elements of a pair are held together mechanically, it is known as a closed pair. The contact between the two can be broken only by destruction of at least one of the member. (b) Unclosed pair : When two links of a pair are in contact either due to force of gravity or some spring action, they constitute an unclosed pair. Kinematic pairs according to nature of relative motion: (a) Sliding pair: If two links have a sliding motion relative to each other, they form a sliding pair. (b) Turning pair: When one link has a turning or revolving motion relative to the other, they constitute a turning or revolving pair. (c) Rolling Pair: When the links of a pair have a rolling motion relative to each other, they form a rolling pair. (d) Screw pair: If two mating links have a turning as well as sliding motion between them, they form a screw pair. Ex – lead screw and nut. (e) Spherical pair: When one link in the form of a sphere turns inside a fixed link, it is a spherical pair. Ex – ball and socket joint. Degrees of freedom: An unconstrained rigid body moving in space can describe the following independent motions. 1. Translational motion along any three mutually perpendicular axes x, y, z and 2. Rotational motions about these axes. Thus, a rigid body possesses six degrees of freedom. Figure - 3