DISADVANTAGES OF FILE-ORIENTED SYSTEM:
The following are the disadvantages of File-Oriented System:
Data Redundancy and Inconsistency:
Since files and application programs are created by different programmers over a long
period of time, the files are likely to be having different formats and the programs may be
written in several programming languages. Moreover, the same piece of information may be
duplicated in several places. This redundancy leads to higher storage and access cost. In
addition, it may lead to data inconsistency.
Difficulty in Accessing Data:
The conventional file processing environments do not allow needed data to be
retrieved in a convenient and efficient manner. Better data retrieval system must be
developed for general use.
Since data is scattered in various files, and files may be in different formats, it is
difficult to write new application programs to retrieve the appropriate data.
Concurrent Access Anomalies:
In order to improve the overall performance of the system and obtain a faster response
time, many systems allow multiple users to update the data simultaneously. In such an
environment, interaction of concurrent updates may result in inconsistent data.
Not every user of the database system should be able to access all the data. For
example, in banking system, payroll personnel need only that part of the database that has
information about various bank employees. They do not need access to information about
customer accounts. It is difficult to enforce such security constraints.
The data values stored in the database must satisfy certain types of consistency
constraints. For example, the balance of a bank account may never fall below a prescribed
amount. These constraints are enforced in the system by adding appropriate code in the various