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Computer Organization

by Thanmayee TumuluriThanmayee Tumuluri
Type: NoteInstitute: DVR & Dr. HS MIC College of Technology Course: B.Tech Specialization: Computer Science EngineeringOffline Downloads: 14Views: 395Uploaded: 4 months ago

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Thanmayee Tumuluri
Thanmayee Tumuluri
UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS 1. EXPLAIN ABOUT DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTER Computers can be broadly classified by their speed and computing power. S.No. Type Specifications 1 PC (Personal Computer) It is a single user computer system having moderately powerful microprocessor 2 Workstation It is also a single user computer system, similar to personal computer however has a more powerful microprocessor. 3 Mini Computer It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. 4 Main Frame It is a multi-user computer system, capable of supporting hundreds of users simultaneously. Software technology is different from minicomputer. 5 Supercomputer It is an extremely fast computer, which can execute hundreds of millions of instructions per second. PC (Personal Computer) A PC can be defined as a small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user. PCs are based on the microprocessor technology that enables manufacturers to put an entire CPU on one chip. Businesses use personal computers for word processing, accounting, desktop publishing, and for running spreadsheet and database management applications. At home, the most popular use for personal computers is playing games and surfing the Internet. Although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, these systems are normally linked together to form a network. In terms of power, now-a-days high-end models of the Macintosh and PC offer the same computing power and graphics capability as low-end workstations by Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard, and Dell. Workstation 1|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS Workstation is a computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other such types of applications which require a moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics capabilities. Workstations generally come with a large, high-resolution graphics screen, large amount of RAM, inbuilt network support, and a graphical user interface. Most workstations also have mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a special type of workstation, called diskless workstation, comes without a disk drive. Common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows NT. Like PC, workstations are also singleuser computers like PC but are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although they can also be used as stand-alone systems. Minicomputer It is a midsize multi-processing system capable of supporting up to 250 users simultaneously. Mainframe Mainframe is very large in size and is an expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds or even thousands of users simultaneously. Mainframe executes many programs concurrently and supports many simultaneous execution of programs. Supercomputer Supercomputers are one of the fastest computers currently available. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amount of mathematical calculations (number crunching). For example, weather forecasting, scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). 2. EXPLAIN ABOUT FUNCTIONAL UNITS IN COMPUTER ORGANIZATION? All types of computers follow the same basic logical structure and perform the following five basic operations for converting raw input data into information useful to their users. S.No. Operation 2|Page Description COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS 1 Take Input The process of entering data and instructions into the computer system. 2 Store Data Saving data and instructions so that they are available for processing as and when required. 3 Processing Data 4 Output Information The process of producing useful information or results for the user, such as a printed report or visual display. 5 Control the workflow Directs the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed. Performing arithmetic, and logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information. Input Unit This unit contains devices with the help of which we enter data into the computer. This unit creates a link between the user and the computer. The input devices translate the information into a form understandable by the computer. CPU (Central Processing Unit) 3|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
UNIT-I S R SOLUTIONS CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program). It controls the operation of all parts of the computer. CPU itself has the following three components −  ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)  Memory Unit  Control Unit Output Unit The output unit consists of devices with the help of which we get the information from the computer. This unit is a link between the computer and the users. Output devices translate the computer's output into a form understandable by the users. Central Processing Unit (CPU) consists of the following features −  CPU is considered as the brain of the computer.  CPU performs all types of data processing operations.  It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).  It controls the operation of all parts of the computer. CPU itself has following three components.  Memory or Storage Unit  Control Unit  ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit) Memory or Storage Unit 4|Page COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

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