1 ACCOUNTING PROCESS AND PRINCIPLES, FINANCIAL, COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING Unit Structure: 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Objectives Introduction Meaning of Accounting Accounting Principles Branches of Accounting Accounting process Funds Flow Statement Cash Flow Statement Distinction between Funds Flow Statement and Cash Flow Statement 1.9 Exercises 1.0 OBJECTIVES After studying the unit the students will be able to: Understand the meaning of Accounting. Explain the Accounting Principles and Concepts. Know the Process of Accounting. Understand and explain the process of Accounting. 1.1 INTRODUCTION Every person performs some kind of economic activity. A worker daily works and get wages and he spends to buy goods, cloths and some part of earnings saves for future. A business man purchases goods and sales it. He incurred various expenses like salaries, rent etc. A partner in firm contributes towards capital in the firm which carries on business may be trading in goods. Similarly companies, Governments are also carries on some financial activities. All are carrying some kind of economic activities. Such economic activities are performed through transactions and / or
2 events. Thus the business transactions include purchase, sale of goods, rendering various services, receipts and payments for such transactions. In a business concerns the transactions are numerous. The details of all transactions cannot be remembered by the business man. Therefore it is necessary to keep written records of all such transactions. The records of written transaction will help business to settle disputes and also possible to provide valuable information to the owner of business. Book-keeping disciple has been developed to serve this purpose. The aim of Book-keeping is to provide the information needed by the businessmen and also it helps him to take decisions. 1.2 MEANING OF ACCOUNTING The American Institute of Certified Public Accounts (AICPA) defined Accounting as “Accountancy is the art of recording classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money transactions and events which are in part of at least a financial characters and interpreting the result there of”. Again in 1966, AICPA defines Accounting as “The process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit; informed judgement and decisions by the uses of accounts”. Thus accounting may be defined as the process of recording, classifying, summarizing, analysing and interpreting the financial transactions and communicating the results. There of to the persons interested in such information. The utility of accounting information is greatly increased when it is compiled in a systematic manner and financial statements are prepared at periodic intervals. There is difference between the terms “Book keeping” and “Accounting”. Book keeping is merely concerned with orderly record keeping and recording business transactions and financial Accounting is border in scope than book keeping. Accounting involves analysis and judgements at different stages such as recording of transactions, classification, summarization and interpretation. 1.3 ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES The basis aims of book-keeping and accountancy are to record the business transactions and events in a summarised form. Transactions are recorded in chronological order in proper books of accounts book-keeping. Accountancy and science based or fundamental truth and rules or conducts or procedures which are
3 universally accepted. These rules of conducts to record business transactions are called accounting principles. These principles are developed over long period of time. The classification of accounting principles is as under: Accounting Principles Accounting Concepts Accounting Conventions a) Business entity a) Disclosure b) Going Concern b) Materiality c) Money Measurement c) Consistency d) Cost Concept d) Conservatism e) Accounting period f) Duel aspect g) Accrual Concept h) Matching Cost i) Realisation 1.3.1 Accounting Concepts: Concepts mean a general idea which conveys certain meaning. Accounting concepts may be considered as basis assumption or conditions on which the science of accounting is based. Concepts are based on logical consideration. Accounts and Financial statements are always interpreted in light of concepts which govern accounting method. Different accounting concepts are discussed as follows: a. Business Entity Concepts According to Entity concept, business is treated as a unit of entity form separate from its Owner, Creditors and Management etc. Accounts are kept for business entity as distinguished form a person associated with it. All business transactions are recorded in the books of Accounts from the point of view of business only. Every type of business organisation is treated as separate Accounting entity.
4 The failure to recognise the business as separate accounting entity would make it extremely difficult to evaluate the performance of business alone. The overall effect of adopting this concept is – 1) Only the business transactions are reported and not the personal transactions of the owners. 2) Profit is the property of business unless distributed to the owners. 3) The personal assets of the owners are not considered while recording and reporting the assets of the business entity. b. Going Concern Business transactions are recorded on the assumption that the business will continue for a long time. There is neither the intention nor the necessity to liquate the particular business in near future. Therefore, it would be able to meet its contractual obligation and use its resources according to the plans and predetermined goals. Therefore, Fixed Assets are recorded at cost and depreciation is calculated on cost / written down value. Similarly prepaid expenses are treated as Assets on the presumption that the business will continue and these expenses will be utilized in future. When an enterprise liquidates a branch or one division or one segment of its business, the ability of the enterprise to continue as a going concern is not imparted. In case of enterprise going to liquidate or become insolvent. Then the enterprise cannot be considered as a going concern. c. Money Measurement Concept A unit of exchange and measurement is necessary to account for business transaction in a uniform manner. Money is common denominator in terms of which the exchange ability of goods and services are measured. Only such transactions and events as can be interpreted in terms of money are recorded. Non monetary events like public political contract, location of business; certain disputes, efficient Sales Force etc. can not be recorded in the books of Accounts even through these have great effects. However, a unit of money measurement over period of time has its own drawbacks. Money has time value, which can not be considered. Time value of money is affected seriously by economic differences etc. System of accountancy treats all units of money same irrespective of time of original and settlement of it say after