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Note for Mineralogy - MIN By dattatreya komakula

  • Mineralogy - MIN
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  • NRI Engineering college - NRIT
  • Civil Engineering
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ar enotsol i dsubst ances. 5.Agoodnumberofmi ner al sar enowf oundt obemember sofi somor phi cgr oups. I somor phi cmi ner al sdonothav eadef i ni t echemi calcomposi t i on, buthav eadef i ni t e r angeofcomposi t i on. 6.Somemi ner al sl i kef l i nt ,cher t ,j asperandagat ear ecr y pt ocr y st al l i ne,i . e. ,t heydo nothav e a wel l dev el oped cr y st alst r uct ur e.A f ew ot her sl i ke opal ,bauxi t e, Psi l omel ane,pi t chbl endeet car et y pi cal l yamor phous,i . e. ,t heydonotpossessany r egul ari nt er nalat omi cst r uct ur e. The mostwi despr eadel ement si n mi ner al s ar e:O,Si ,Al ,Fe,Ca,Na,Mg,K,Ti whi l e S,Cl ,C,Mn,H ar e moder at el yspr ead.B,Be,Pb,Sb,As,Bi ,Se,U, et c ar e ei t herr ar eear t hel ement s ornotspr eadatal l . Mi ner al sar ebr oadl ygr oupedi nt o ( a)Rockf or mi ngmi ner al s(const i t ut ear ock)and ( b)Or e–f or mi ngmi ner al s( composi t i onofanor ewhi chi seconomi cal l yi mp) . Thet er m or emi ner alembr acesmi ner al sf r om whi chv al uabl emet al l i cel ement s canbeex t r act ed.Eg;Cu,Ag, Fe,Al . Mi ner al s ar e ext r emel yi mpor t ant economi cal l y ,aest het i cal l y ,i ndust r i al l y and sci ent i f i cal l y . Economi cal l y , ut i l i zat i onof mi ner al s i s necessar yt o mai nt ai n any t hi ng f or st andar dofl i v i ng.Gol d,si l v er ,copper ,i r on,al umi num et car e economi cal l y i mpor t antmi ner al sf orhumanbei ngs. Aest het i cal l y ,mi ner al sofdi amond,r uby ,sapphi r e,emer al d shi neasgemsand enr i ch ourl i v es.Gems i nj ewel l er y , cr own j ewelcol l ect i ons at t r actt heat t ent i on ofmi l l i onsofpeopl e. Al li nal l ,appr oxi mat el y 10% ofal lmi ner alspeci es ar e used at pr esentf or i ndust r i alpur poses. Sci ent i f i cal l y , mi ner al s compr i se t he dat abankf r om whi chwecan l ear n about ourphy si calear t handi t sconst i t uentmat er i al s. Chemi st r yhasdev el oped on t hebasi soft hest udyoft hechemi calcomposi t i on andt hepr oper t i esofv ar i ousmi ner al sandor es.Mi ner al ogi calmet hodsar ewi del y usedi nPet r ol ogy ,Geochemi st r y ,soi lst udy ,Pal eont ol ogy( i nt hest udyoff ossi l s) , i nmedi ci ne, i nar cheol ogy . Al lt hemi ner al sar egr oupedi nt o8cl asses: 2| Page

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1.Nat i v eel ement s( Eg: Au, Ag, Cu, Ar seni c, Bi smut h, Pl at i num, Di amond) 2.Sul phi des (Eg: Gal ena, Py r i t e, Ci nnabar , St i bni t e, Py r r hot i t e) 3.Oxi des( Magnet i t e, Haemat i t e, Rut i l e, Br ooki t e)andhy dr oxi des( Eg: ser pent i ne; amphi bol es) 4.Hal i des( Eg: Fl uor i t e, Hal i t e) 5.Car bonat es(Eg: cal ci t e, Magnesi t e) ,ni t r at esandbor at es 6.Sul phat es(Eg: Bar y t es, Gy psum) ,chr omat es( Eg: Uv ar ov i t e) 7.Phosphat es(Eg: Apat i t e,Monazi t e) 8.Si l i cat es(eg:Quar t z ,f el dspar s,Muscov i t e,Bi ot i t e,Hor nbl ende,Tour mal i ne, Zer ol i t e, Topaz). Si nce si l i cat esar et hemost common r ockf or mi ng mi ner al s, i ti sdesi r abl et o know somer el ev antaspect saboutt hese. I nal l si l i cat e st r uct ur es,t hesi l i con at oms ar ei nf our f ol d coor di nat i onwi t h oxy gen.Thebondsbet ween si l i conandoxy gen ar esost r ong t hatt he4 oxy gen’ s ar eal way satt hecor ner sofat et r ahedr onofnear l y const antdi mensi ons. O O S O O STRUCTUREOFSI LI CATES/CLASSI FI CATI ON OFSI LI CATES Si l i cat e cl assi f i cat i onf or most si l i cat e mi ner al si s based ont het y pes of l i nkagesasf ol l ows: 1.NESOSI LI CATES 2.SOROSI LI CATES 3.I NOSI LI CATES 4.CYCLO SI LI CATES 5.PHYLLOSI LI CATES 6.TECTO SI LI CATES 3| Page

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1.NESOSI LI CATES: ( i ndependent t et r ahedr algr oups) :i nt hi s gr oup Si O4 t et r ahedr aoccurasi ndependentuni t si nmi ner alst r uct ur e. Si :O: :1: 4 Onesi l i con–oxy gent et r ahedr on Eg: Ol i v i nef ami l y ; Al umi num si l i cat ef ami l y (ky ani t e, si l l i mani t e; Andal usi t e) Gar netf ami l y . OLI VI NEFAMI LY OLI VI NES ar enesosi l i cat esi nat omi cst r uct ur ewi t ht he (Si O4) i nwhi chR=MgorFe.Ol i v i nef ami l yconsi st sof For st er i t e (Mg2Si O4) Fay al i t e (Fe2Si O4) Ol i v i ne ( MgFe) i O4 2S gener alf or mul aR2 Ol i v i nei soneoft hef i r stmi ner al st of or m al ongwi t hcal ci cpl agi ocl asef el dspar s dur i ng t hesol i di f i cat i on ofmagma.As magma cool s down,ol i v i ne r eact s wi t h si l i cacont entofpar entmagmaandchangesov ert opy r oxene. PERI DOTi sat r anspar ent , pal egr eengem v ar i et yf oundi nEgy pt ,Bur ma,Br azi l ) Al t er at i on: ol i v i nes ar e hi ghl y suscept i bl et o decomposi t i on. Hy dr ot her mal al t er at i onofol i v i nespr oducesser pent i ne. 3Mg2Si O2 +H2O +Si O2 2Mg3Si OH) 2O5( 4 For st er i t e ser pent i ne Occur r ence: Occur si n Ul t r abasi ci gneous r ocks such as Duni t e,Per i dot i t e, Pi cr i t e.Al sooccur sasaccessor ymi ner ali nBasal t s,Dol er i t es,Gabbr os. Uses:Duet oi t s hi gh mel t i ng poi nt ,ol i v i ne i s used i nt he manuf act ur eof r ef r act or ybr i cks. ALUMI NUM SI LI CATES I nnat ur e,t ot al l y ,t hr ee mi ner al s wi t h di f f er entphy si calpr oper t i es wi t h same composi t i onoccur sasAl i O5,whi char ecal l edasal umi num si l i cat es. 2S 4| Page

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ANDALUSI TE f or med under hi gh t emper at ur e& l ow st r ess condi t i ons of met amor phi sm. SI LLI MANI TEf or med underhi gh t emper at ur e& hi gh st r ess condi t i ons of met amor phi sm. KYANI TEf or med under moder at et emper at ur e andhi gh st r ess condi t i ons of met amor phi sm.Ky ani t ei s a pr oductofhi gh gr ade met amor phi sm.I twi l lnot f or m ei t herasapr i mar ymi ner alorasapr oductofweat her i ng. GARNET FAMI LY Thi sf ami l y i sal so bel ongi ngt o nesosi l i cat es and consi stoft he f ol l owi ng mi ner al s: Gr ossul ar Al mandi ne Py r ope Ca3Al Si O4) 2( 3 Fe3Al Si O4) 2( 3 Mg3Al Si O4) 2( 3 Spessar t i t e Mn3Al Si O4) 2( 3 Andr adi t e Ca3Fe2 ( Si O4) 3 Uv ar ov i t e Ca3Cr Si O4) 2( 3 Undermi cr oscope,gar netcan beseen r ounded cr y st al s, t r av er sed bybr anchi ng cr acksandhav i ngnocl eav age. Occur r ence:Gnei sses,Ky ani t eSchi st s;Sy eni t eset c Uses: usedasabr asi v ei nt hepol i shi ngofwoodandasagemst one. 2.SOROSI LI CATES:( Doubl e t et r ahedr alst r uct ur es) :i nt hi s gr oupofmi ner al s, Si O4 t et r ahedr a occuri npai r si nwhi ch one oxy geni sshar ed bet ween t he t wo si l i conat oms. The epi dot esar e al lsi mi l ari nt hei rat omi c st r uct ur e,a mi xed t y pecont ai ni ng bot hSi O4 and Si r oupsf or msadi f f er entt y pesof mi ner al s 2O7 g eg: I docr ase. ( Si : O: :2: 7) Twosi l i con–oxy gent et r ahedr on O O O S O S O O 5| Page O

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