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Statement and Argument

by Placement FactoryPlacement Factory
Type: NoteSpecialization: Logical ReasoningOffline Downloads: 2Views: 97Uploaded: 2 months ago

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STATEMENT - ARGUMENTS In this type of questions, a statement is given folowed by two arguments. One argument supports the given statment by pointing out the positive results of the statement and the other argument is given against the statement by pointing out the negative features of it. A typical question of statement argument is given below. Directions : The question given below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a 'strong' argument and which is a 'weak' argument. Statement : Should there be a world government? Statement : Should all the remote parts of a country be connected by road ? Argument : Yes, It must be done immediately. This argument does not have any argumentative substance and so it is a weak argument. 3. If an argument simply supports or denies a given statement without giving a proper analysis, it is a weak argument. Statement : Argument : No, It is not good in any country. (a) I. Yes, It will hep in eliminating tensions among the nations. II. No. Then only the developed countries will dominate in the government. Only I is strong Should election expenses to central and state ligislatures be met by the government ? (b) (c) Only II is strong either I or II is strong Statement : Should f ashionable dresses be banned ? (d) Neither I nor II is strong Argument : Yes, Why not ? Arguments : (e) both I and II are strong To answer this question, first of all we should determine whether an argument is strong or weak. For this, each argument should be subjected to the following tests. 1. If an argument is ambiguous, it is a weak argument. For example, Statement : Should higher education be reserved for the deserving few? Argument : 2. Yes, It will minimise wastage in higher education. If an argument is too simple, it is a weak argument. They are clearly related with the statement. But due to lack of proper argumentation, they are considered as weak arguments. 4. 5. Arguments which consists of a question thrown back without any substance and argument is a weak argument. If it is a scientifically established or universally acknowledge fact, it is a strong argument. Otherwise it is weak. Statement : Should religion be taught in our School ? Argument : Yes, Teaching religion helps inculcate moral values among children? This argument is a strong argument because it is an established fact. 6. A argument that promotes or prohibits on the basis of an example is a weak argument. Statement : Should private sector be permitted to operate telephone services? Argument : Yes, They are operated in advanced western countries. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ()
This is a weak argument. Just because telephone services are operated in advanced western countries, it cannot be declared as pursuable. 7. If an argument has passed the above mentioned points, then we check the desirability of the argument. For this, first of all, we check whether the arguer is right in saying that the course of action will bring the given positive or negative consequence. Next, we check whether this positive or negative conseqence is really benefitial or harmful. Statement : Should non - vegetarian food be totally banned in our country ? Argument : Yes, It is expensive and theref ore beyond the means of most people in our country. Logically this argument is probable because non - vegetarian food is expensive and therefore it is beyond the means of most people in our country. But only for this reason, ban on non vegetarian food is not desirable. So this argument is weak. 8. A statement and an argument are said to be properly related if the argument emphasises the main issue involved. Also it should be a balanced option. That is really beneficial or harmful. If they are properly related the argument is considered as a strong argument. Statement : Should there be compulsory military training for all? Argument : Yes, It will bring a sense of discipline in the people It is true that military training will bring a sense of discipline in the people. But compulsory military training is too significant an action to be taken simply for this reason. Solved Examples: 1. Statement : Should luxury hotels be banned in India? Argument : I, Yes, they are places from where international criminals operate. II. No. Affluent foreign tourists will have no place to stay. I is not strong because only by imposing a ban on luxury hotels, success of international criminals can not be put to an end. But argument II is strong. 2. Statement : Should private sector be permitted to operate telephone services? Argument : I. Yes, They are operated in advanced western coutries. II. No. It is risky to put them in private hands. Here both the arguments are weak. A policy cannot be followed in a developing country like india, merely on the reason that telephone services are operated in advanced western countries. II is not acceptable because permitting the private sector to operate telephone services may bring out greater efficiency. Hence Both the arguments are weak. PRACTICE TEST Directions : Each question given below is followed by two arguments numbered I and II you have to decide which of the argument is a 'strong' argument and which is a ' weak' argument. Give answer (a) If only argument I is strong, (b) if only argument II is strong, (c) If either I or II is strong (d) if neither I nor II is strong and (e) if both I and II are strong. 1. Statement : Should one close relative of a retiring government employee be given a job in government in India? Arguments : I, Yes, where else will the relatives get a job like this? II. No, it will close doors of government service to competent and needy youth. 2. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( Statement : Should puchase of gold by individulas be restricted in India to improve its foreign exchange positions? Arguments : I, Yes, interference on customer's right and freedom is desirable. II. No, buisness interest has to be guarded first.
3. Statement : Arguments : 4. Statement : Arguments : 5. Statement : Arguments : 6. Statement : Arguments : 7. Statement : Arguments : Should teaching of 'Sanskrit' be made compulsory at school level in India? I No, where are the trained teachers to teach this language / II Yes, we should be proud of our ancient language/ Should all education be made free for girls and women of all ages of India? I, No, this will weaken our present social structures. II. Yes, this is the only way to bring back glory to Indian womenhood. Should private colleges of f ering prof essional courses like Engineering Medical, Management be banned in India? I, Yes, such courses should be run by Government Colleges only II. Yes, no other country allows private colleges to run professional courses. Should Doordarshan be given autonomous status? I, Yes, It will help Doordarshan to have fair and impartial coverage of all important events. II. No, the coverage of events will be decided by a few who may not have healthy outlook. Should adult education programme be giv en priority over compulsory education programmes ? I, No, It will also help in success of compulsory education programme. II. Yes, it will help to eliminate the adult illiteracy. 8. Statement : Should India go in for computerisation in industry? Arguments : I, No Computerisation demands a lot of money. W e should not waste money on it. II. Yes, when advanced coutries are introdusing computers in v arious areas, how can India afford to log behind? 9. Statement : Should new big industries be started in Bombay ? Arguments : I, Yes, It will create new job opportunities. II. No, It will further add to the pollution of the city. 10. Statement : Should higher education be completely stopped for some time ? Arguments : I, No, It will hamper the coutry's future progress. II. Yes, It will reduce the educated unemployement. 11. Statement : Should slum dweller be provided free houses in big cities and metropolises? Arguments : I, No, most of the slum dwellers are poor and illiterate. II. Yes, providing food and shelter to evey citizen is the responsibility of any welfare state. 12. Statement : Should Polythene Bags be banned in India? Arguments : I, No, The polythene bags are very cheap and are very convenient. II. Yes, that is what many countries are doing. 13. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( Statement : Should military service for short duration be made compulsory to all eligible youth in India?
14. 15. Arguments : I, yes, Indian defence forces are badly in need of jawans and officers. II. Yes, it will inculcate discipline and national pride in youth. Statement : Should private sector be permitted to operate telephone services? Statement : Statement : Arguments : 20. Arguments : I, Yes. They are operated in advanced western countries. II. No, It is risky to put them in private hands. Statement : Should there be only one university throughout India? Arguments : I, Yes. This is the only way to bring about uniformty in the educational standards. 16. 19. Statement : Arguments : 21. II. No. This is administratively impossible. Should telecasting feature films be stopped? Statement : Arguments : Arguments : I, Yes. Young children are misguided by the feature films. 17. Statement : II. No. This is the only way to educate the masses. Should non- vegetarian food be totally banned in our country? Arguments : I. Yes. It is expensive and therefore it is beyond the means of most people in our country. 22. Arguments : 23. II. No. Nothing should be banned is a democratic country like ours. 18. Should workers be allowed to participate in the management of factories in India? Arguments : I. Yes. It is the present management theory. II. No. Many workers are illiterate and so their contributions will not be of any value. Statement : Statement : 24. Create PDF files without this message by purchasing novaPDF printer ( Statement : Should smoking be prohibited? I. Yes. It is wrong to smoke away millions of money. II. No. It will throw thousands of workers in the tobacco industry out of employement. Should those who recieve dowry, despite the law prohibiting it, be punished? I. Yes. Those who violate the law, must be punished. II. No. Dowry system is firmly rooted in the society since time immemorial. Should selection tests be of the objective rather than of the descriptive type? I, Yes. The assessment of answers to objective type questions is f air and impartial. II. No. The descriptive type test is certainly a better tool than the objective type test. Should state lotteries be stopped ? I. Yes. Government should not promote gambling habits. II. No. Government will lose a large amout of revenue. Should India have no military force at all? Arguments : I, No. Other coutries in the world do not believe in nonviolence. II. Yes. Many Indians believe in non- violence. Statement : Should personal tax be abolished in India? Arguments : I, Yes. It will motivate people to earn more. II. No. Individuals must learn to share their wealth with other people.

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