Prof. Lionel Robbins defined Economics as “the science, which studies human behaviour as
a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. With this, the
focus of economics shifted from ‘wealth’ to human behaviour’.
Lord Keynes defined economics as ‘the study of the administration of scarce means and
the determinants of employments and income”.
The study of an individual consumer or a firm is called microeconomics (also called the
Theory of Firm).
Micro means ‘one millionth’. Microeconomics deals with behavior and
problems of single individual and of micro organization. Managerial economics has its
roots in microeconomics and it deals with the micro or individual enterprises. It is
concerned with the application of the concepts such as price theory, Law of Demand and
theories of market structure and so on.
The study of ‘aggregate’ or total level of economics activity in a country is called
macroeconomics. It studies the flow of economics resources or factors of production (such
as land, labour, capital, organisation and technology) from the resource owner to the
business firms and then from the business firms to the households. It deals with total
aggregates, for instance, total national income total employment, output and total
investment. It studies the interrelations among various aggregates and examines their
nature and behaviour, their determination and causes of fluctuations in the. It deals with
the price level in general, instead of studying the prices of individual commodities. It is
concerned with the level of employment in the economy. It discusses aggregate
consumption, aggregate investment, price level, and payment, theories of employment,
and so on.
Though macroeconomics provides the necessary framework in term of government
policies etc., for the firm to act upon dealing with analysis of business conditions, it has
less direct relevance in the study of theory of firm.
Management is the science and art of getting things done through people in formally
organized groups. It is necessary that every organisation be well managed to enable it to
achieve its desired goals. Management includes a number of functions: Planning,
organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. The manager while directing the efforts of
his staff communicates to them the goals, objectives, policies, and procedures;
coordinates their efforts; motivates them to sustain their enthusiasm; and leads them to
achieve the corporate goals.
MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS