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Note for Change of Speech - CS by Abhishek Apoorv

  • Change of Speech - CS
  • Note
  • Verbal Ability
  • Placement Preparation
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Part IV_________________________________________________Grammar with Exercises DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH WITH BACKSHIFT OF TENSES In indirect / reported speech, the tense used in the speaker’s original words is usually (but not always) moved back a tense when the reporting verb (said, told, etc.) is in the past. INDIRECT / REPORTED STATEMENTS Tense changes Present Simple He said: “I know the way.” → Past Simple He said he knew the way. Present Continuous She said: “Peter is working.” → Past Continuous She said Peter was working. Present Perfect Simple → She said: “I have made a mistake.” Past Perfect Simple She said she had made a mistake. Present Perfect Continuous → He said: “We have been learning.” Past Perfect Continuous He said they had been learning. Past Simple → They said: “We sold the house.” Past Perfect Simple They said they had sold the house. Past Continuous Bill said: “I was sitting.” → Past Perfect Continuous Bill said he had been sitting. Past Perfect Simple She said: “I had worked hard.” = Past Perfect Simple She said she had worked hard. Past Perfect Continuous Jill said: “I had been cooking.” = Past Perfect Continuous Jill said she had been cooking. going to future → Bob said: “I’m going to resign.” shall / will I said: “He’ll clean it.” was / were going to Bob said he was going to resign. → would I said he would clean it. - 74 -

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Part IV_________________________________________________Grammar with Exercises Conditional Clauses – Type I → Conditional Clauses – Type II Bill said: “If she sees me, she’ll greet me.” Bob said that if she saw him she would greet him. Conditional Clauses – Type II = Conditional Clauses – Type II He said: “If it snowed in June, I would go skiing.” He said that if it snowed in June, he would go skiing.” Conditional Clauses – Type III = Conditional Clauses – Type III She said: “I would have passed the exam if I had studied more.” She said that she would have passed the exam if she had studied more. ◊ WHEN THE TENSE DOESN’T CHANGE apart from the examples given above: ▪ All natural laws and eternal truths may remain in the Present Simple: She said: “Water boils at 100° C.” – She said that water boils at 100° C. ▪ Assuming that the situation still exists, the verb can stay in the Present Simple or change to the Past Simple in reporting: He said: “The Polytechnic enrolls new students every year.” He said that the Polytechnic enrolls / enrolled new students every year. ▪ When the Past Simple Tense is used in a time clause, it does not generally change. The verb in the main clause can remain in the Past Simple or change into the Past Perfect: He said: “When I got there ↓ time clause the place was almost empty.” ↓ main clause He said that when he got there, the place was / had been empty. - 75 -

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Part IV_________________________________________________Grammar with Exercises ▪ When the Past Simple is used to refer to a situation that still exists in the present, it does not generally change: She said: “We didn’t stay in the hotel because it was too expensive.” (And presumably the hotel is still expensive now.) She said that they hadn’t stayed in the hotel because it was too expensive. ▪ The Past Continuous used in time clauses does not normally change: George said: “When I was living in Zagreb ……....” George said that when he was living in Zagreb ………… ▪ The verbs could (used for past ability can remain unchanged or become had been able to), should, would, might, must (used for deductions, permanent ruling / prohibition; otherwise must changes into had to), needn’t, ought to, used to, had better do not normally change: He said: “She might be right”. – Ha said that she might be right. She said to me: “You had better leave Tom alone.” – She told me that I had better leave Tom alone. They said to me: “You needn’t go.” – He told me I needn’t go. Sheila said: “I could swim when I was four.” – Sheila said that she could / had been able to swim when she was four.” He said: “Soldiers must wear uniforms.” – He said that soldiers must wear ↓ uniforms. permanent ruling but: Harry said: “I must leave.” – Harry said that he had to leave. - 76 -

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Part IV_________________________________________________Grammar with Exercises EXERCISE Put the following sentences into reported (indirect) speech: 1. She said to me: “I am going to town with my brother.” 2. They said: “We are ready to come with you.” 3. Kim said: “We enjoyed ourselves at the party.” 4. I said: “I am not guilty.” 5. She said to her mum: “I have been learning all the morning.” 6. He said: “I don’t like sweets.” 7. Susan said: “My parents never let me stay out late.” 8. He said: “I’ve been on the web since 2005.” 9. “I just don’t want to visit them”, she said. 10. “We are going away, mother”, he said. 11. The teacher said to me: “You are not working hard enough.” 12. The proverb said: “The flock of a feather flock together.” 13. “I’m sorry I couldn’t come”, she said. 14. He said to her: “You look gorgeous!” 15. “My husband too often visits his mother”, she said to her friend. 16. Charles said to Fiona: “I love you.” 17. Fiona said to Charles: “I loved you once.” 18. “When they arrived, I was still reading the newspapers”, she said. 19. “We were planning to go out but then Joe started feeling sick”, he said. 20. They said: “We enjoyed ourselves.” 21. The scientist said: “Wood floats in water.” 22. “When the project first started, there was a lot of interest in it”, she said. 23. He said: “People must obey their country’s law.” 24. “I must go home”, she said. 25. My father said to me: “You’d better write a report.” 26. She said, “I must have a computer to teach online.” 27. She said, “I can teach English online.” 28. “My name is Rose”, she said. 29. “If it rains, I’ll stay at home”, Paul said. 30. “If I married Harry, I would be happy”, she said. 31. She said: “We would have bought a car if my husband had won the lottery.” - 77 -

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