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- Data Structure using C - DS
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C - Operators An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical functions. C language is rich in built-in operators and provides the following types of operators − • Arithmetic Operators • Relational Operators • Logical Operators • Bitwise Operators • Assignment Operators • Misc Operators We will, in this chapter, look into the way each operator works. Arithmetic Operators The following table shows all the arithmetic operators supported by the C language. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then − Show Examples Operator Description Example + Adds two operands. A + B = 30 − Subtracts second operand from the first. A − B = -10 * Multiplies both operands. A * B = 200 / Divides numerator by de-numerator. B/A=2 % Modulus Operator and remainder of after an integer division. B%A=0

++ Increment operator increases the integer value by one. A++ = 11 -- Decrement operator decreases the integer value by one. A-- = 9 Relational Operators The following table shows all the relational operators supported by C. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20 then − Show Examples Operator Description Example == Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A == B) is not true. != Checks if the values of two operands are equal or not. If the values are not equal, then the condition becomes true. (A != B) is true. > Checks if the value of left operand is greater than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A > B) is not true. < Checks if the value of left operand is less than the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A < B) is true. >= Checks if the value of left operand is greater than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A >= B) is not true. <= Checks if the value of left operand is less than or equal to the value of right operand. If yes, then the condition becomes true. (A <= B) is true.

Logical Operators Following table shows all the logical operators supported by C language. Assume variable A holds 1 and variable B holds 0, then − Show Examples Operator Description Example && Called Logical AND operator. If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes true. (A && B) is false. || Called Logical OR Operator. If any of the two operands is nonzero, then the condition becomes true. (A || B) is true. ! Called Logical NOT Operator. It is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, then Logical NOT operator will make it false. !(A && B) is true. Bitwise Operators Bitwise operator works on bits and perform bit-by-bit operation. The truth tables for &, |, and ^ is as follows − p q p&q p|q p^q 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 Assume A = 60 and B = 13 in binary format, they will be as follows − A = 0011 1100

B = 0000 1101 ----------------A&B = 0000 1100 A|B = 0011 1101 A^B = 0011 0001 ~A = 1100 0011 The following table lists the bitwise operators supported by C. Assume variable 'A' holds 60 and variable 'B' holds 13, then − Show Examples Operator Description Example & Binary AND Operator copies a bit to the result if it exists in both operands. (A & B) = 12, i.e., 0000 1100 | Binary OR Operator copies a bit if it exists in either operand. (A | B) = 61, i.e., 0011 1101 ^ Binary XOR Operator copies the bit if it is set in one operand but not both. (A ^ B) = 49, i.e., 0011 0001 ~ Binary Ones Complement Operator is unary and has the effect of 'flipping' bits. << Binary Left Shift Operator. The left operands value is moved left by the number of bits specified by the right operand. (~A ) = -60, i.e,. 1100 0100 in 2's complement form. A << 2 = 240 i.e., 1111 0000

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