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Note for Total Quality Management - TQM By Er.Ramji Tripathi

  • Total Quality Management - TQM
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  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University - AKTU
  • Mechanical Engineering
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NOE-072 QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY MANAGEMENT Management activities and functions involved in determination of quality policy and its implementation through means such as quality planning and quality assurance (including quality control). 2. Compare present performance to pre established performance norms. 3. Determine the next action plan and modifications for meeting the desired performance parameters. Controlling is an ongoing process. QUALITY CONCEPT FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT The following are the four basic functions of management that make up the management process: 1. Planning 2. Organizing 3. Directing 4. Controlling. Planning: Planning involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed. Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the long term. Organizing: Organizing can be assignment of the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing is to create a mechanism to put plans into action. People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the company’s goals. Tasks are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization. Directing: Directing is also referred as motivating, leading or influencing. It can be defined as guiding the activities of organization members in the direction that helps the organization move towards the fulfilment of the goals. Quality of product signifies the degree of its excellence and fitness for the purpose. The quality of product means all those activity which are directed to maintain and to improve. Such as setting of quality targets, appraisal of conformance, taking corrective action where any deviation is noticed and planning for improvements in quality. Quality is a measure of the user satisfaction provided by a product. It includes functional efficiency, appearance, ease of installation and operation, safety reliability, maintainability, running and maintenance cost. DEFINITIONS OF QUALITY 1. 2. 3. 4. Quality is conformance to requirements Quality is fitness for use Quality is the degree to which performance meets expectations Quality denotes an excellence in goods and services QUALITY CONTROL Quality Control (QC) may be defined as: The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfil the requirements for quality. Following are the three steps for QC: 1. Evaluate actual operating performance 2. Compare actual performance to goals 3. Act on the difference The purpose of influencing is to increase productivity. Human-oriented work situations usually generate higher levels of production over the long term than do task oriented work situations because people find the latter type distasteful. Controlling: Controlling referred to the following roles played by the manager: 1. Gather information that measures performance Er. Ramji Tripathi (Mech. Engg. Depart) Asstt. Professor

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2 EVOLUTION OF QUALITY CONTROL        The quality movement started from medieval Europe. Craftsmen organized unions called guilds in the late thirteenth century. The product inspection started in Great Britain in the mid 1750s and brought Industrial Revolution in the early nineteenth century. The concept of producing interchangeable parts to simplify assembly was introduced in 1798. World War II gave birth to quality in manufacturing industries and military application. A quality revolution in Japan followed World War II. The Japanese became leader in quality by the 1970s. Japanese manufacturers penetrated in American markets which affected the United States. The emphasis became not only on statistics but approaches which involved the entire organization. This movement led to Total Quality Management (TQM). Several quality standards followed and one of them is ISO 9000 quality system standards published in 1987. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. CONCEPT CHANGE A change concept is a general notion or approach to change that has been found to be useful in developing specific ideas for changes that lead to improvement. There are several individuals who made significant contributions to quality control and improvement. The philosophy of W. Edward Deming, the best known quality expert, was summarised in the following fourteen points: 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service, with the aim to become competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic age. Western management must awaken to the challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on leadership for change. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the product in the first place. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service, to improve quality 13. 14. and productivity, and thus constantly decrease costs. Institute training on the job. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision should be to help people and machines and gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of management is in need of overhaul as well as supervision of production workers. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the company Break down barriers between departments. People in research, design, sales, and production must work as a team, to foresee problems of production and in use that may be encountered with the product or service. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the work force asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity. Such exhortations only create adversarial relationships, as the bulk of the causes of low quality and low productivity belong to the system and thus lie beyond the power of the work force. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor. Eliminate management by objective. Eliminate management by numbers, numerical goals. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker of his right to joy of workmanship. The responsibility of supervisors must be changed from sheer numbers to quality. Remove barriers that rob people in management and in engineering of their right to joy of workmanship. This means abolishment of the annual merit rating and of management by objective Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. The transformation is everybody's job. TQM MODERN CONCEPT Total Quality Management (TQM) is the new concept on Quality Control. TQM deals with the product in its totality. Quality is determined by the combined effects of various departments such as Design, Engineering, Purchase, Production and Inspection. This is basically an integrated system covering all quality control activities during various phases of product development. Dimensions of Quality 1. 2. 3. 4. Performance Features Durability Reliability Er. Ramji Tripathi (Mech. Engg. Depart) Asstt. Professor

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NOE-072 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. QUALITY MANAGEMENT Serviceability Appearance Uniformity Consistency and conformance Safety Time Customer service Comparability TQM involves all the aspects of the firm in satisfying a customer. TQM involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. Customer-supplier relationship based on mutual trust and respect. Firm in-house requirements by the customer. Suppliers are partners in achieving zero-defect situation. Regular monitoring of supplier processes and products by the customer. QUALITY BY DESIGN Product quality is created by design. There should be consideration of quality in design of a product which meets customers need at a price acceptable to him. GENERAL CONSIDERATION FOR A GOOD DESIGN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Appearance Functional Efficiency Safety Reliability Maintainability Ease of Production Standardization Review of Design EVALUATION OF THE PROTOTYPE Objectives of TQM a. b. c. d. e. Customer focus, customer delight/satisfaction. Continuous improvement of culture of the organization. Focused, continuous and relentless cost reduction. Focused, continuous and relentless quality improvement. To create an organization whereby everyone is working towards making their organization the best business, and to capitalize on the sense of achievement and working in a world-class organization. An Integrated TQM Model 1. 2. 3. Manufacturing Drawing Product Specification Design Changes during Production CONTROL ON PURCHASED PRODUCT An organization needs to purchase a variety of raw materials and products for further processing or consumption. The quality of product is important and given due consideration at the time of purchase because it can affect the quality of the end product. While deciding the quantity that is to be purchased, consideration is also given to the economy. Many times, it is more economical to get some of the components as per their own design manufactured by ancillary companies. PROCUREMENT PROCESS   Procurement process is known as purchasing through the purchasing department. It starts with a requisition from an employee and ends with the payment of supplier. EVALUATION OF SUPPLIERS    It is the process of evaluating and approving potential suppliers by factual and measureable assessment. It ensures a portfolio of best-in class suppliers is available for use. It is a process to measure and monitor the performance of suppliers for reducing cost, reducing risk and for continuous improvement. Er. Ramji Tripathi (Mech. Engg. Depart) Asstt. Professor

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4 Evaluation Process Management Responsibilities It is the pre-qualification step within the purchasing process on the basis of which a supplier is approved or not approved. It is also known as Supplier Performance Management. This includes approval of various aspects of the supplier business including:  Capacity  Financials  Organization Structure, and  Performance 1. 2. 3. Benefits    Suppliers provide high standard of products and services Suppliers offer sufficient capacity and business stability Identification and removal of hidden cost in supply chain 4. Drawbacks   Include resources and cost commitments in establishing and maintaining an effective system Without going through the root cause of supplier’s problem or inconsistent scoring may result in inaccurate assessment. 5. CAPACITY VERIFICATION 6. For capacity verification, following points need to be verified: General Requirement 1. 2. Whether the organisation has established, documented, implemented, maintained and continually improves a quality management system (QMS) in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9000-2000? Whether the organisation has identified the processes needed for the quality management system, determined the sequence and interaction of these processes, criteria and methods required to ensure the effective operation and control of these processes, ensure the availability of information necessary to support the operation and monitoring of these processes, measures, monitors and analyses these processes and implements action necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement. 7. 8. 9. Management Commitment: Whether the top management is committed to the development of the quality management system. Customer Focus: Whether the top management ensures that customer needs and expectations are determined considering obligations related to product including regulatory and legal requirements, converted into requirements and fulfilled with the aim of achieving customer satisfaction. Quality Policy: Has the top management defined its Quality policy? Is it appropriate to the purpose of the organisation, committed to meeting requirements of customers and to continual improvement, provides a framework for establishing and reviewing quality objectives, communicated and understood at appropriate levels in the organisation, reviewed for continuing suitability and controlled? Provision of Resources: Has the organisation determined and provided in a timely manner the resources needed to implement and improve the processes of the quality management system and to address customer satisfaction? Assignment of Personnel: Whether the Personnel assigned responsibilities defined in the quality management system are competent on the basis of applicable education, training, skills and experience. Training, Awareness and Competency: Whether the organisation has established a system for identifying competency needs of personnel and provides training, Evaluate the effectiveness of the training provided, and maintains appropriate records of education, experience, training and qualifications of its personnel? Facilities: Has the organisation identified, provided and maintained facilities such as Workspace, Equipment, hardware and software and supporting services it needed to achieve the conformity of product? Work Environment: Whether the organisation has a system for identification and management of human and physical factors of the work environment needed to achieve conformity of product. Planning of Realization Processes: Whether the organisation has determined Quality objectives for the product, project or contract, processes and documentation, resources and facilities specific to the product verification and validation activities, the criteria for acceptability, and records that are necessary to provide confidence of conformity in the process planning for product realization. Er. Ramji Tripathi (Mech. Engg. Depart) Asstt. Professor

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