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Programming in C

by Nihar Ranjan Rout
Type: NoteInstitute: BIJU PATANAIK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Course: B.Tech Specialization: Computer Science EngineeringViews: 91Uploaded: 20 days agoAdd to Favourite

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Nihar Ranjan Rout
Nihar Ranjan Rout
About The Tutorial C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis M. Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to develop the UNIX operating system. C is the most widely used computer language. It keeps fluctuating at number one scale of popularity along with Java programming language, which is also equally popular and most widely used among modern software programmers. Audience This tutorial is designed for software programmers with a need to understand the C programming language starting from scratch. This tutorial will give you enough understanding on C programming language from where you can take yourself to higher level of expertise. Prerequisites Before proceeding with this tutorial, you should have a basic understanding of Computer Programming terminologies. A basic understanding of any of the programming languages will help you in understanding the C programming concepts and move fast on the learning track. Copyright & Disclaimer  Copyright 2014 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consent of the publisher. We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of our website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website or in this tutorial, please notify us at contact@tutorialspoint.com i
Table of Contents About The Tutorial ..................................................................................................................................... i Audience .................................................................................................................................................... i Prerequisites .............................................................................................................................................. i Copyright & Disclaimer .............................................................................................................................. i Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................................... ii 1. OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................................. 1 Facts about C ............................................................................................................................................ 1 Why Use C? ............................................................................................................................................... 1 C Programs................................................................................................................................................ 2 2. ENVIORNMENT SETUP ............................................................................................................ 3 Try it Option Online .................................................................................................................................. 3 Local Environment Setup .......................................................................................................................... 3 Text Editor ................................................................................................................................................ 3 The C Compiler ......................................................................................................................................... 4 Installation on UNIX/Linux ........................................................................................................................ 4 Installation on Mac OS .............................................................................................................................. 5 Installation on Windows ........................................................................................................................... 5 3. PROGRAM STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................... 6 Hello World Example ................................................................................................................................ 6 Compile and Execute C Program ............................................................................................................... 7 4. BASIC SYNTAX ......................................................................................................................... 8 Tokens in C................................................................................................................................................ 8 Semicolons................................................................................................................................................ 8 Comments ................................................................................................................................................ 8 Identifiers ................................................................................................................................................. 9 ii
Keywords .................................................................................................................................................. 9 Whitespace in C ...................................................................................................................................... 10 5. DATA TYPES........................................................................................................................... 11 Integer Types .......................................................................................................................................... 11 Floating-Point Types ............................................................................................................................... 13 The void Type.......................................................................................................................................... 14 6. VARIABLES............................................................................................................................. 15 Variable Definition in C ........................................................................................................................... 15 Variable Declaration in C......................................................................................................................... 16 Lvalues and Rvalues in C ......................................................................................................................... 18 7. CONSTANTS AND LITERALS ................................................................................................... 19 Integer Literals ........................................................................................................................................ 19 Floating-point Literals ............................................................................................................................. 20 Character Constants ................................................................................................................................ 20 String Literals .......................................................................................................................................... 21 Defining Constants .................................................................................................................................. 22 The #define Preprocessor ...................................................................................................................... 22 The const Keyword ................................................................................................................................. 23 8. STORAGE CLASSES................................................................................................................. 24 The auto Storage Class ............................................................................................................................ 24 The register Storage Class ....................................................................................................................... 24 The static Storage Class ........................................................................................................................... 25 The extern Storage Class ......................................................................................................................... 26 9. OPERATORS........................................................................................................................... 28 Arithmetic Operators .............................................................................................................................. 28 Relational Operators ............................................................................................................................... 30 iii

Lecture Notes