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Note for ENGINEERING GRAPHICS - EG By Kinshuk Jain

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Q. What is CAD ? Ans. The process of constructing the drawings on the computer screen with the help of specially developed softwares and hardwares is called Computer Aided Drafting. Q. Name various softwares used for CAD ? Ans. Various softwares used for CAD are AutoCAD, Pro/ENGINEER, NX Unigraphics, IronCAD, Catia, SOLIDEDGE, SOLIDWORKS, 3Ds Max and Visio. Q. What are advantages of CAD ? Ans. CAD offer following advantages 1. Accuracy: CAD helps to achieve very high degree of accuracy that is impossible to achieve manually. For example, a line 22.532 mm long or an angle of 53.27 can be precisely drawn in CAD software. 2. Speed: With sufficient practice, a user can create drawings speedily. Similar objects can be copied or mirrored or arrayed which saves time required for duplication. Automatic hatching, texting and dimensioning save time. 3. Easy Editing: Drawings once constructed can be easily edited or modified as and when needed. Component drawings from one drawing file can be inserted in another drawing file.

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4. Space Effectiveness: A computer can store several thousand drawing files over along period of time. Equal no. of drawing sheets, drawn manually, will need a big godown to store. 5. Standard libraries: CAD softwares have libraries containing drawings of standard parts, such as gears, valves, pulleys, electrical and electronic components, civil and architectural components that can be directly used. 6. Scaling: A drawing can be enlarged or reduced by any scale factor. Dimensions change automatically. Further printing can be made to any scale. 7. Better visualization: Use of different colours helps avoiding confusion. A 3D view of the object can be easily created to boost imagination. 8. Freedom from using drawing instruments: A simple Cad system needs a computer with a mouse and a keyboard to draw. The draftsman need not use bulky drawing instruments like drawing board, drafter, set square etc. What are limitations of CAD ? Ans. CAD has following limitations: 1. 32 bit computer is necessary because of large amount of memory and time. 2. The size of the software package is large. 3. Skill and judgment are required to prepare the drawing. 4. It requires huge investment.

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What are main components of CAD ? Ans. Main components of CAD are: 1. Title Bar: The colour strip displayed at the top of the AutoCAD window is called the title bar. In the title bar the file name is indicated within [ ]. 2. Menu Bar: The menu bar, located below the title bar, provides pull down menus from which one can choose commands. 3. Tool Bar: There are many toolbars on the screen like draw tool bar, edit tool bar etc. Each tool bar contains number of buttons, from which one can activate command by clicking the button. 4. Status Bar: The status bar located at the bottom of the screen shows the coordinates of the screen cursor as well as the current setting of various Autocad program. 5. Command Window: The command window is one component of autocad that does not have an equivalent in most other windows programs. One can activate any autocad command by typing the command and pressing enter. 6. Document Window: The document window or drawing area, occupies most of the screen. This is the area where one can actually creat the drawing.

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Write any five draw commands used in CAD ? Ans. Some important draw commands are : LINE (L), PLINE (polyline) (PL), POINT (PO), POLYGON (POL), RECTANG (rectangle)(rec), ARC (A), CIRCLE(C), SPLINE(SPL), ELLIPSE (EL), HATCH (H), MTEXT(multiline text) (t or mt), XLINE (xl), RAY Write any five edit commands used in CAD ? Ans. Some important edit commands are : ERASE(e), COPY(co or cp), MIRROR (mi), OFFSET (o), ARRAY (ar), MOVE (m), ROTATE (ro), SCALE (sc), TRIM (tr), EXTEND (ex), BREAK (br), JOIN (j), CHAMFER (cha), FILLET (f), EXPLODE(x), LENGTHEN (len) Write any five standard tool bar commands used in CAD ? Ans. Some important standard tool bar commands are :NEW, OPEN, SAVE, UNDO (u), REDO,CUTCLIP, COPYCLIP, PROPERTIES(ch or mo or props), MATCHPROP(match properties) (ma), PAN (p), ZOOM(z) Write any five commands used for dimensioning in CAD ? Ans. Some important dimensioning commands are :DIMALIGNED (dal or dimali), DIMRADIUS (dra or dimrad), DIMDIAMETER (ddi or dimdia), DIMANGULAR (dan or dimang), LEADER(ql)

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