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ANALOG COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
PCEC 4302
ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
5th SEMESTER (B.Tech)
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Syllabus with name of books
ANALOG COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES (3-1-0)
Module-I : (12 Hours)
SIGNALS AND SPECTRA:An Overview of Electronic Communication Systems, Signal and its Properties,
Fourier Series Expansion and its Use, The Fourier Transform, Orthogonal Representation of Signal.
RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROCESSES: Probability, Random variables, Useful Probability Density
functions, Useful Properties and Certain Application Issues.
AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS: Need for Frequency translation, Amplitude Modulation(Double
Side Band with Carrier DSB-C),Single Sideband Modulation(SSB) Other AM Techniques and Frequency
Division Multiplexing ,Radio Transmitter and Receiver.
Module-II : (12 Hours)
ANGLE MODULATION: Angle Modulation, Tone Modulated FM Signal, Arbitrary Modulated FM signal,
FM Modulators and Demodulators, Approximately Compatible SSB Systems.
PULSE MODULATION AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION OF ANALOG SIGNAL:
Analog to Digital( Noisy Channel and Role of Repeater), Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Concept of
Time division multiplexing ,Pulse Width Modulation and Pulse Position Modulation, Digital Representation
of Analog Signal.
Module-III : (14 Hours)
MATHEMATICAL REPRESENTATION OF NOISE:Some Sources of Noise, Frequency-domain
Representation of Noise ,Superposition of Noises, Linear Filtering of Noise.
NOISE IN AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEM : Framework for Amplitude Demodulation, Single
Sideband Suppressed Carrier(SSB-SC), Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier(DSB-SC), Double
Sideband With Carrier(DSB-C).
NOISE IN FREQUENCY MODULATION SYSTEM : An FM Receiving System, Calculation of Signal to
Noise Ratio, Comparison of FM and AM, Preemphasis and Deemphasis and SNR Improvement, Noise in
Phase Modulation and Multiplexing Issues, Threshold in Frequency Modulation, Calculation of Threshold
in an FM Discriminator, The FM Demodulator using Feedback(FMFB).
Essential Reading:
1. H. Taub, D. L Schilling, G. Saha; Principles of Communication System, 3rd Edition; 2008, Tata McGraw
Hill, India; ISBN: 0070648115. (Selected portions from chapters: Chapter-1,Chapter-2, Chapter-3,
Chapter-4, Chapter-5, Chapter-7, Chapter-8, Chapter-9)
Supplementary Reading:
1. Communication System Engineering,Second Edition by Masoud Salehi, John G. Proakis, ISBN:
0130950076 (paperback)
2. Analog Communication by Chandra Sekar, Oxford University Press.
3. Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems, by B.P. Lathi, Oxford
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Module I:
Signal & Spectra
Definition of a signal:
"A signal is a detectable physical quantity or impulse (as a voltage, current, or magnetic field
strength) that varies with respect to time, space, temperature or any other independent variable or
can be defined as a function x(t) of independent variable ‘ t’ by which messages or information
about behaviour of a natural or artificial system can be conveyed"
Electrical signals - time varying voltages and currents - in many cases have important
properties that are necessary to be measured. Sometimes it is also justified to make any of these
kinds of measurements.
Power in an audio signal - as one can test an audio amplifier's output ability
Frequency - as one can use an AC tachometer to measure a motor's rpm.
Amplitude – measurement of signal strength in a communication system.
This includes the basic definition of signals. To easily understand signals & systems, we
would visualize signals as simple mathematical functions.
Classification of signals:
1. Continuous & Discrete Signals
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Continuous signals & those defined over a set of real numbers(R) & discrete signals are
those defined for discrete integers(I).
For instance, a signal (a function) having the domain [0,10] is continuous & one having

the domain {1,2,3…10} is discrete.
A Continuous Signal can be converted to a Discrete Signal using an Analog-to-Digital Converter
(ADC). The conversion consists of a process called sampling.
The sampling process simply samples out values of the signal at certain points separated by
an equal interval called the sampling period.
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