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Note for Robotics and Robot Applications - RRA by Rakesh Kumar

  • Robotics and Robot Applications - RRA
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THE BASICS OF ROBOTICS

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1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................... 1 2 INTRODUCTION FOR ROBOTICS BASICS .................................................. 2 3 4 5 6 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 2 2.2 Automation ............................................................................................ 2 2.3 Robot applications in our lives .................................................................. 3 2.4 Types of robot ........................................................................................ 6 2.5 Required studies in robotics ...................................................................... 8 2.6 Extrapolating from nature ......................................................................... 9 2.7 Comparing robots to humans .................................................................... 9 2.8 Programming a robot by teaching method .................................................. 9 2.9 Typical programming of an industrial robot .............................................. 10 2.10 Accuracy and repeatability of addressable points ............................... 11 TECHNOLOGIES OF A ROBOT .................................................................. 12 3.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 12 3.2 Sub systems .......................................................................................... 12 3.3 Transmission system (Mechanics) ........................................................... 17 3.4 Power generation and storage system ....................................................... 20 3.5 Sensors ................................................................................................ 20 3.6 Electronics ........................................................................................... 25 3.7 Algorithms and software ........................................................................ 27 SERVO MOTOR DESIGN ........................................................................... 28 4.1 Introduction .......................................................................................... 28 4.2 Servo motor main types ......................................................................... 28 4.3 Application types in servo motor ............................................................. 31 4.4 How to define a suitable servo motor speed .............................................. 32 4.5 Servo motor gearbox ............................................................................. 32 4.6 Servo motor gearbox .......................................................................... 32 4.7 Choosing a suitable gearbox ................................................................... 33 4.8 Controlling inertia ................................................................................ 34 4.9 A Base servo motor example in a robot .............................................. 36 4.10 Resolution........................................................................................... 38 INDUSTRIAL ROBOT ................................................................................ 40 5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 40 5.2 History of a robot ................................................................................ 40 5.3 Main types of an industrial robot ......................................................... 41 5.4 Main robot motions ............................................................................. 42 5.5 Scara robot vs articulated robot: ......................................................... 44 5.6 End effectors ...................................................................................... 45 INDUSTRIAL MANIPULATORS AND ITS KINEMATICS ........................... 46

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6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 46 6.2 Links and joints ................................................................................... 46 6.3 Degree of freedom .............................................................................. 50 6.4 Types of robotic chains ....................................................................... 51 6.5 Degree of freedom in opened chains .................................................. 51 6.6 Degree of freedom in closed chains .................................................... 51 6.7 Stewart platform.................................................................................. 54 6.8 Defining work space area ................................................................... 55 6.9 How to define the inverse kinematics in 2R manipulator ..................... 58 6.10 How to define the inverse kinematics in 3R manipulator ..................... 58 7 TRAJECTORY DEFINITION ...................................................................... 59 7.1 Forward position problem ................................................................... 60 7.2 Inverse position problem ..................................................................... 60 7.3 Simple example with planar 2R ........................................................... 60 7.4 3R planar manipulator......................................................................... 62 7.5 Prismatic joints calculation .................................................................. 64 8 POSITION, ORIENTATION, FRAMES ....................................................... 65 8.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 65 8.2 Transformation.................................................................................... 69 8.3 Mapping involving general frames....................................................... 70 8.4 Translation operators .......................................................................... 72 8.5 Compound transformation .................................................................. 73 9 TRAJECTORY PLANNING IN ROBOTICS ................................................ 74 9.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 74 9.2 Required data for trajectory planning .................................................. 74 9.3 Constraints ......................................................................................... 76 9.4 Subject to constraints.......................................................................... 76 9.5 Cubic polynomials ............................................................................... 76 9.6 Why to use cubic segment? ................................................................ 83 9.7 Common strategy 4-3-4 trajectory: ...................................................... 84 9.8 Coordinate motion .............................................................................. 85 10 1 Attachment 1 .......................................................................................... 88 TRAJECTORY PLANNING BY USING ROBOT STUDIO .......................... 88 1.1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 88 1.2 Creating new station and saving it ...................................................... 88 1.3 Moving robot joint space ..................................................................... 94 1.4 Target teach method ........................................................................... 97 1.5 Create program using virtual flex pendant......................................... 102

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1 INTRODUCTION Many of us are wondering how a robot functions, what types of technologies are used in a robot and why we need a robot in our life. The aim is to provide the reader with a clear, simple explanation of robotics. The information is directed towards engineering students, and engineers who are interested in a robotics. In the beginning, you will find a general idea and the development of robot technologies, some applications of an industrial robot and a non-industrial robot. How robotics has developed in the last few decades and how it begins to play a vital role in our industrial life. The topic of the thesis is to summarize and cover the most important areas of a robot structure and design. My target was to provide the reader with an easy, simple way by using a lot of different pictures, drawings and mathematic examples to make the subject of robotics simple to understand and easy to follow step by step from the basics until the most complicated forms. Robotics study becomes an extremely large field because it contains a huge amount of different technologies, but I have covered the most important areas. 1

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