Introduction To Nano Science & Biotechnology Module -2 Author : Abhijit Mangaraj & Ananya Punyotoya Parida 2018 : As per BPUT syllabus.
Syllabus : Nano Science & Biotechnology Module -1(6 Hours) Fundamental and process of fabrication The world of small dimensions, Nanoscale Properties (Electrical, Optical, Chemical, Mechanical), Nanoscale visualization techniques , Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM, Cryo-SEM), Scanning probe microscopy (AFM, STM), Diffraction techniques (XRD,synchrotron),Top-down and Bottom-Up approach , nanoparticles (synthesis,properties and applications). Module-2 (12 Hours) Nano-Device and Components: Structure of carbon nanotube, Classification and physical properties of CNT, Graphene: structure, synthesis and properties, Nanophotonis (Photonic crystal in one, two and three dimensions), Quantum dot, quantum wire, Nanofluidics: nanopores and Nano capillaries, Debye length, Nanomechanics (elastic, thermal and kinetic material properties). Module-3 (10 Hours) Quantum Electronics: Coulomb blockade in nano capacitors and quantum dot circuits. Single Electron Transistor (SET), Quantum information and computing, Sprintonics devices and its classifications, Structural and optical properties of nanomaterials, Molecular Electronics, NEMS, Optical and Magnetic computer. Module -4 (10 Hours) Bio-Device and application Bio-nanostructures (nanofibers, nanotubes, nanocellulose), Biological nanomachines Ribosomes, Photosynthesis systems,Near-field Bioimaging, Nanoparticles for optical diagnosticsand Targeted Therapy,Protein nanotechnology, DNA nanotechnology, Nano robotand its application, Nanocapsule, Nanosomes, Medibots, Artifiial pancreas, Artificial Muscle,Nanoclinic for Gene delivery and photodynamic therapy Nanoparticle in cancer, Bionanomotors. ADDITIONAL MODULE (Terminal Examination-Internal) (05 hr) Nanotechnology safety and the environment,Impact of nanotechnology on society and industry, Biosensors (fabrication, functionalization, applications), Current research on nanotechnology. Books: 1. Rishal Singh, S.M. Gupta,Introduction to nanotechnologyOxford university press,(2016). 2. Paras N. Prasad, Nanophotonics, John Wiley & Sons, (2016). 3. C. M. Niemeyer, C. A. Mirkin, ―Nanobiotechnology: Concepts, Applications and Perspectives, Wiley – VCH, (2004). 2. 4 T. Pradeep, ―Nano: The Essentials, McGraw – Hill education, (2007). 4. Challa, S.S.R. Kumar, Josef Hormes, CarolaLeuschaer, Nanofabrication Towards Biomedical Applications, Techniques, Tools, Applications and Impact, Wiley – VCH, (2005). 5. Nicholas A. Kotov, ―Nanoparticle Assemblies and Superstructures, CRC, (2006). 6. David S Goodsell, “Bionanotechnology, John Wiley & Sons, (2004). MODULE -2
Nano Devices and Components: CARBON NANO TUBES: CNT Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as minor byproduct during synthesis of fullerene which is an allotrope of carbon, in which the atoms are arranged in closed shells. Fullerenes consist of 20 hexagonal and 12 pentagonal rings as the basis of an icosahedral symmetry closed cage structure. The special nature of carbon combines with the molecular perfection of buckytubes (single-wall carbon nanotubes) to enhance them with exceptionally high material properties such as electrical and thermal conductivity, strength, stiffness, and toughness. No other element in the periodic table bonds to itself in an extended network with the strength of the carbon-carbon bond. This gives rise to the first molecule with metallic-type electrical conductivity. The high-frequency carbon-carbon bond vibrations provide an intrinsic thermal conductivity higher than even diamond. Buckytubes are an example of true nanotechnology: only a nanometer in diameter, but molecules that can be manipulated chemically and physically. They open incredible applications in materials, electronics, chemical processing and energy management. Structure: Buckytubes are single-wall carbon nanotubes, in which a single layer of graphite - graphene - is rolled up into a seamless tube. Graphene consists of a hexagonal structure like chicken wire. If you imagine rolling up graphene or chicken wire into a seamless tube, this can be accomplished in various ways. For example, carbon-carbon bonds (the wires in chicken wire) can be parallel or perpendicular to the tube axis, resulting in a tube where the hexagons circle the tube like a belt, but are oriented differently. Alternatively, the carbon-carbon bonds need not be either parallel or perpendicular, in which case the hexagons will spiral around the tube with a pitch depending on how the tube is wrapped. Figure 1 illustrates these points:
Figure 1. Buckytube structures Classification and properties: Carbon nanotubes are tubular carbon molecules provided with very particular properties. Their structure is similar to fullerene; but while the fullerene's molecules form a spherical shape, nanotubes are cylindrical structures with the ends covered by half a fullerene molecule. Nanotube diameter is of the order of a few nanometers, while their length can be of the order of several millimeters. The Physical Structure of Carbon Nanotubes The physical properties of nanotubes make them potentially useful in nanometric scale electronic and mechanical applications, since they show unusual strength, unique electrical properties and extremely high thermal conductivity. The chemical bonding between carbon atoms inside nanotubes is always of sp2 type, the same that we find in graphite, and provides them their unique strength. Moreover, they align themselves into ropes held together by the Van der Waals force and can merge together under high pressure, trading some sp2 bonds to sp3 and producing very strong wires of nanometric lateral dimension. Types of Carbon Nanotubes: 2 types 1. Single-Walled (SWNT) 2. Multi-Walled (MWNT) Single wall nanotube (SWNT ) consist of one cylinder. It is made of single graphene sheet rolled up into cylinder closed by two caps (semi fullerenes). The SWNTs have diameter in the range of 0.5 -2.0 nm. The length is in the range of 50-150 μm length. The SWNTs are microporous and the specific surface area is in the range of 1300 m2/g (outer surface). SWCNTs are commonly arranged in bundles. SWNTs have less topological defects and have better mechanical and electro physical properties. Electronic properties of SWNTs are governed by two factors, tube diameters and helicity, which further depend on the way graphene layer is rolled up, arm chair or chiral. Armchair SWNTs shows conductivity as similar to metal whereas zigzag SWNTs behave as semiconductors. In catalysis CNTs have high application as support. Electrical conductivity, surface curvature and presence of inner cavity in CNTs make the metal –support interaction different compared to that in activated carbon or graphite support. Mechanically bent SWNTs present kink sites that are chemically more active. Metal nanoparticles size depends strongly on metal-CNT interactions with stronger interaction giving rise to smaller nanoparticles. Studies have shown that convex surface of CNTs are more reactive than concave surface and the difference in reactivity increases when the tube diameter decreases. Multiwall (MWNT) nano tubes consist of many nested concentric SWNTs cylinders with increasing successive radii. The concentric walls are spaced regularly at 0.34 nm similar to inter graphene distance. MWNTs have outer diameter in range of 2 – 100 nm depending on number of coaxial tubes present. MWNTs are usually mesoporous in nature and specific area depends on the number of walls. The length of MWNTs can range from few to hundreds μm. The advantage of MWNT over SWNT is that the multi-shell structures of MWNTs are stiffer than single wall hence stability is higher. Also large scale synthesis of MWNT is possible by various methods. The most