Unit VI: Thermodynamics
Concepts of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive
properties, state functions.
First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat,
measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation,
combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.
Introduction of entropy as a state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for
spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium.
Third law of thermodynamics –Brief introduction.
Unit VII: Equilibrium
Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action,
equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium – Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium – ionization
of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid
strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), , buffer solutions, Henderson equation,
solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII : Redox Reactions
Concept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in
terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers , applications of redox reactions.
Unit IX Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of
hydrogen; hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy
water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, use and structure; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s- Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 elements:
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element
of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy,
atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:
Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological
importance of sodium and potassium.
CaO, CaCO3, and industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.
Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements
General Introduction to p-Block Elements
Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties,
oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boronphysical and chemical properties, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium:
uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.