CE6304 SURVEYING I
4. Theodolite surveying
5. Tacheometric surveying
6. Photogram metric surveying
7. Aerial surveying
6. Explain the constructions of a diagonal scale.
For a given short length ( PQ=PR), draw a right angle triangle. Its base( PR)
and height (PQ) are equal. A short length is divided into a number of parts by using the
principle of similar triangles in which like sides are proportional.
1-1 represents 1/ 10 PQ
9-9 represents 9/ 10 PQ
7. Define chain surveying. What is the fundamental principle of chain surveying?
Chain surveying is the type of surveying in which only linear measurements
are made in the field.
The main principle of chain surveying or chain triangulation is to provide a
framework consist of number of well-conditioned triangles or nearly equilateral triangles.
It is used to find the area of the field.
8. What is a well-conditioned triangle? What is its specific advantage?
A triangle is said to be well- conditioned or well proportioned when it
contains no angle smaller than 300 and no angle greater than 1200 .
The main principle of chain surveying is chain triangulation. It consists of
frame work of triangles. To plot the network of triangles accurately, the triangles must be
nearly equal to equilateral or well-conditioned. The distortion due to errors in
measurement and plotting should be minimum.
9. What are the operations involved in chain survey?
(i). Ranging: The process of locating intermediate points on a straight line
between two end points in a straight line.
(ii). Chaining: The process of measuring the distance with a chain or tape.
(iii). Offsetting: The process of measuring the lateral distance of the object
from the survey line to the left or right according to their positions.
10. What are the instruments required for a chain survey?
Chain or tape, Arrows, Pegs, Ranging rods, Offset rods, Laths or whites,
Plumb bob, Cross staff and Mallet.
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