CLASSIFICATION OF SURVEYING
Surveying may be classified based on the following three points:
1. Natural of the field of survey
2. Objects of survey
3. Instrument used
4. The methods employed
Classification Based on Nature of the Field of Survey
On this basis field of survey may be classified as land survey. Marine or hydraulic survey and
Land survey: It involves measurement of various objects on land. This type of survey may be
further classified as given below:
Topographic surveys: They consist of measurement of various points to plot natural features
such as rivers, streams, lakes, hill and forests as well as man – made features like roads,
railways, towns, villages and canals.
ii. Cadastral survey: These surveys are for marking boundaries of municipalities, states, etc.
the surveys made to mark properties of individual also come under this category.
iii. City survey: The surveys made in connection with the construction of streets, water supply
and sewage lines fall under this category.
Marine of Hydrographic Surveys: The survey conducted to find depth of water at various points
in bodies of water like sea, river and lakes fall under this category of surveying. Finding depth of
water at specified points is known as soundings.
Astronomical Surveys: Observations made to heavenly bodies like sun and stars to locate absolute
position of points on the earth and for the purpose of calculating local times is known as
Classification Based on Object of Surveying
On the basis of objective of surveying, the classification can be as engineering survey.
Military survey, mines survey, geological survey and archaeological survey.
1. Engineering survey: The objective of this type of surveying is to collect data for designing
roads, railways, irrigation, water supply and sewage disposal projects. These surveys may be
further subdivided into: