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# Note for Applied Hydraulics - AH by Engineering Kings

• Applied Hydraulics - AH
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CE6403 APPLIED HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING LTPC 31 04 OBJECTIVES: To introduce the students to various hydraulic engineering problems like open channel flows and hydraulic machines. At the completion of the course, the student should be able to relate the theory and practice of problems in hydraulic engineering. UNIT I UNIFORM FLOW 9 Definition and differences between pipe flow and open channel flow - Types of Flow - Properties of open channel - Fundamental equations - Velocity distribution in open channel - Steady uniform flow: Chezy equation, Manning equation - Best hydraulic sections for uniform flow Computation in Uniform Flow - Specific energy and specific force - Critical depth and velocity. UNIT II GRADUALLY V ARIED FLOW 9 Dynamic equations of gradually varied and spatially varied flows - Water surface flow profile classifications: Hydraulic Slope, Hydraulic Curve - Profile determination by Numerical method: Direct step method and Standard step method, Graphical method - Applications. ww UNIT III RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 9 Application of the energy equation for RVF - Critical depth and velocity - Critical, Sub-critical and Super-critical flow - Application of the momentum equation for RVF - Hydraulic jumps - Types Energy dissipation - Surges and surge through channel transitions. w.E asy UNIT IV TURBINES 9 Impact of Jet on vanes - Turbines - Classification - Reaction turbines - Francis turbine, Radial flow turbines, draft tube and cavitation - Propeller and Kaplan turbines - Impulse turbine - Performance of turbine - Specific speed - Runaway speed - Similarity laws. UNIT V PUMPS 9 Centrifugal pumps - Minimum speed to start the pump - NPSH - Cavitations in pumps - Operating characteristics - Multistage pumps - Reciprocating pumps - Negative slip - Flow separation conditions - Air vessels, indicator diagrams and its variations - Savings in work done - Rotary pumps: Gear pump. En gin eer ing .ne TOTAL (L:45+T:15): 60 PERIODS OUTCOMES:  The students will be able to apply their knowledge of fluid mechanics in addressing problems in open channels.  They will possess the skills to solve problems in uniform, gradually and rapidly varied flows in steady state conditions.  They will have knowledge in hydraulic machineries (pumps and turbines). TEXT BOOKS: 1. Jain. A.K., "Fluid Mechanics", Khanna Publishers, Delhi, 2010. 2. Modi P.N. and Seth S.M., "Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics", Standard Book House, New Delhi, 2002. 3. Subramanya K., "Flow in open channels", Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2000. REFERENCES: 1. Ven Te Chow, "Open Channel Hydraulics", McGraw Hill, New York, 2009. 2. Rajesh Srivastava, "Flow through open channels", Oxford University Press, New Delhi,2008. 3. Bansal, "Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines", Laxmi Publications, New Delhi, 2008. 4. Mays L. W., "Water Resources Engineering", John Wiley and Sons (WSE), New York,2005. t

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Sl.No Contents Page No. UNIT 1 UNIFORM FLOW 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 DifferencesbetweenPipeFlowandOpen ChannelFlow 2 1.3 Types of flow 2 1.4 Propertiesofopenchannels 3 1.5 Fundamentalequations 5 1.6 1.7 ww 8 Velocitydistributionin openchannels w.E 9 Steady Uniformflow asy 10 1.7.1 TheChezyequation 1.7.2 TheManningequation En 1.8 BestHydraulicCross-Section 1.9 Computationsin UniformFlow 1.10 Specific Energy 1.11 Critical Flow and Critical Velocity 11 gin eer 12 UNIT II GRADUALLYVARIEDFLOW ing 16 20 .ne 23 t 2.1 Varied Flow 24 2.2 Gradually Varied Flow in Open Channel 24 2.3 Transitions between Sub and Super Critical Flow 25 2.4 Classification of profiles 27 2.5 Profile Determination 30 2.5.1 Thedirectstepmethod 32

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2.5.2 The standardstep method 32 2.5.3 Graphical Integration Method 33 UNIT 3 RAPIDLY VARIED FLOW 3.1 The Application of the Energy equation for Rapidly Varied Flow 37 3.1.1 The energy (Bernoulli) equation 37 3.2 Critical , Sub-critical and super critical flow 38 3.3 Application of the Momentum equation for Rapidly Varied Flow 40 3.4 Hydraulic jump 42 ww 3.4.1 Expression for Hydraulic Jump 42 w.E 3.4.2 Loss of Energy due to HydraulicJump 42 3.4.2 Loss of Energy due to HydraulicJump 42 3.4.4 Classification of Hydraulic Jumps 42 asy En UNIT 4 TURBINES gin 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Breaking Jet 4.3 Classification of Turbines 4.4 Impulse turbines 4.5 Reaction turbines 4.6 Turbines in action 46 4.7 Kaplan turbine 4.7.1Applications 46 eer 44 44 ing 44 .ne 45 t 45 47 4.7.2 Variations 48 4.7.2.1 Propeller Turbines 48 4.8 Francis Turbine 49 4.9 Specific speed 52 UNIT 5 PUMPS 5.1 Centrifugal Pumps 53

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53 5.1.1 Volute type centrifugal pump 5.1.2 Impeller 53 5.1.3 Classification 54 5.1.4 Single and double entry pumps 54 5.1.5 Pressure Developed By The Impeller 55 5.1.6 Manometric Head 55 5.1.7 Energy Transfer By Impeller 56 5.1.8 Slip and Slip Factor 57 5.1.9 Losses in Centrifugal Pumps 57 ww 5.1.10 Losses in pump 58 w.E 5.1.11 Pump Characteristics 58 5.1.12 Characteristics of a centrifugal pump asy 59 Operation of Pumps in Series and Parallel 5.2 5.2.1 Pumps in parallel En 5.2.2 Pumps in series 60 gin 60 eer 60 ing 5.2.3 Minimum Speed For Starting The Centrifugal Pump 5.2.4 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 5.2.5 Cavitation 5.2.6 Multistage Pump 61 .ne 61 t 61 62 5.3 Reciprocating Pumps 62 5.3.1 Comparison 5.3.2 Description And Working 62 62 5.3.3 Flow Rate and Power 5.3.4 Slip 64 64 5.3.5 Coefficient of discharge 65 5.3.6 Indicator Diagram 65 5.3.7 Acceleration Head 65