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# Note for Surveying-2 - S-2 By Engineering Kings

• Surveying-2 - S-2
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Engineering Kings
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CE6404 SURVEYING II LTPC 300 3 OBJECTIVES:  This subject deals with geodetic measurements and Control Survey methodology and its adjustments. The student is also exposed to the Modern Surveying. UNIT I CONTROL SURVEYING 9 Horizontal and vertical control – Methods – specifications – triangulation- baseline – instruments and accessories – corrections – satellite stations – reduction to centre- trigonometrical levelling – single and reciprocal observations – traversing – Gale‟s table. UNIT II SURVEY ADJUSTMENT 9 Errors Sources- precautions and corrections – classification of errors – true and most probable Values- weighed observations – method of equal shifts –principle of least squares -0 normal Equation – correlates- level nets- adjustment of simple triangulation networks. ww UNIT III TOTAL STATION SURVEYING 9 Basic Principle – Classifications -Electro-optical system: Measuring principle, Working Principle, Sources of Error, Infrared and Laser Total Station instruments, Microwave system: Measuring principle, working principle, Sources of Error, Microwave Total Station instruments. Comparis on between Electro-optical and Microwave system. Care and maintenance of Total Station instruments. Modern positioning systems – Traversing and Trilateration. w.E asy UNIT IV GPS SURVEYING 9 Basic Concepts - Different segments - space, control and user segments - satellite configuration signal structure - Orbit determination and representation - Anti Spoofing and Selective Availability - Task of control segment – Hand Held and Geodetic receivers –data processing - Traversing and Triangulation. UNIT V ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING 9 Route Surveying - Reconnaissance - Route surveys for highways, railways and waterways Simple curves – Compound and reverse curves - Setting out Methods – Transition curves – Functions and requirements - Setting out by offsets and angles - Vertical curves - Sight distanceshydrographic surveying – Tides - MSL - Sounding methods - Three-point problem - Strength of fix - Sextants and station pointer- Astronomical Surveying – field observations and determination of Azimuth by altitude and hour angle methods – fundamentals of Photogrammetry and TOTAL: 45 PERIODS Remote Sensing En OUTCOMES: gin eer ing .ne t On completion of this course students shall be able to understand the advantages of electronic surveying over conventional surveying methods  Understand the working principle of GPS, its components, signal structure, and error sources  Understand various GPS surveying methods and processing techniques used in GPS  observations TEXT BOOKS: 1. 2. 3. James M. Anderson and Edward M. Mikhail, "Surveying, Theory and Practice", 7th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001. Bannister and S. Raymond, "Surveying", 7th Edition, Longman 2004. Laurila, S.H. "Electronic Surveying in Practice", John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1993 REFERENCES: 1. Alfred Leick, "GPS satellite surveying", John Wiley & Sons Inc., 3rd Edition, 2004. 2. Guocheng Xu, " GPS Theory, Algorithms and Applications", Springer - Berlin, 2003. 3. Satheesh Gopi, rasathishkumar, N. madhu, “Advanced Surveying, Total Station GPS and Remote Sensing" Pearson education , 2007

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TABLE OF CONTENTS S.NO 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 2 TOPICS PAGE NO CHAPTER 1(CONTROL SURVEYING) HORIZONTAL CONTROLS & ITS METHODS VERTICAL CONTROL & ITS METHODS CLASSIFICATION OF TRIANGULATION SYSTEM FIRST ORDER OR PRIMARY TRIANGULATION SECONDARY ORDER OR SECONDARY TRIANGULATION THIRD ORDER OR TERTIARY TRIANGULATION CHAPTER 2 SURVEY ADJUSTMENTS TYPES OF ERROR THE LAW OF ACCIDENTAL ERRORS PRINCIPLES OF LEAST SQUARES LAW OF WEIGHTS DISTRIBUTION OF ERROR OF THE FIELD MEASUREMENT CHAPTER 3 TOTAL STATION BASIC PRINCIPLE 1 1 5 5 6 7 ww 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 w.E 9 10 10 10 12 asy En gin CLASSIFICATION OF TOTAL STATIONS 13 LASER DISTANCE MEASUREMENT ELECTRO- OPTICAL SYSTEM FEATURES OF TOTAL STATIONS 3.5 SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS 3.6 SOURCES OF ERROR FOR TOTAL STATIONS 14 eer 16 ing 22 .ne 27 31 CHAPTER 4 GPS SURVEYING 4.1 INTRODUCTION 40 4.2 SEGMENTS OF GPS 40 4.3 SPACE SEGMENT 41 4.4 OBSERVATION PRINCIPLE AND SIGNAL STRUCTURE 43 t

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4.5 STRUCTURE OF THE GPS NAVIGATION DATA 45 4.6 CONTROL SEGMENT 46 4.7 GROUND CONTROL SEGMENT 48 4.8 4.9 USER SEGMENT BASIC CONCEPT OF GPS RECEIVER AND ITS COMPONENTS 48 48 4.10 CLASSIFICATION OF GPS RECEIVERS 52 4.11 ACCURACY 60 4.12 DIFFERENTIAL THEORY 61 4.13 DIFFERENTIAL GPS ww w.E 62 asy CHAPTER 5 ADVANCED TOPICS IN SURVEYING En gin 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 5.3 5.4 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SURVEYING PRINCIPLES BEHIND TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY MEAN SEA LEVEL? EXPLAIN WHY IT IS USED AS DATUM. 5.5 5.5 ASTRONOMICAL SURVEYING 5.5.1 63 eer ing 63 64 83 CO-ALTITUDE OR ZENITH DISTANCE (Z) AND AZIMUTH (A). .ne 83 84 t

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CE6404 SURVEYING II CHAPTER 1 CONTROL SURVEYING 1.1 HORIZONTAL CONTROLS & ITS METHODS The horizontal control consists of reference marks of known plan position, from which salient points of designed structures may be set out. For large structures primary and secondary control points are used. The primary control points are triangulation stations. The secondary control points are reference to the primary control stations. Reference Grid Reference grids are used for accurate setting out of works of large magnitude. The following types of reference grids are used: 1. Survey Grid ww 2. Site Grid w.E 3. tructural Grid asy 4. Secondary Grid En Survey grid is one which is drawn on a survey plan, from the original traverse. Original traverse stations form the control points of the grid. The site grid used by the designer is the one with the help of which actual setting out is done. As far as possible the site grid should be actually the survey grid. All the design points are related in terms of site grid coordinates. The structural grid is used when the structural components of the building are large in numbers and are so positioned that these components cannot be set out from the site grid with sufficient accuracy. The structural grid is set out from the site grid points. The secondary grid is established inside the structure, to establish internal details of the building, which are otherwise not visible directly from the structural grid. gin 1.2 VERTICAL CONTROL & ITS METHODS: eer ing .ne t The vertical control consists of establishment of reference marks of known height relative to some special datum. All levels at the site are normally reduced to the nearby bench mark, usually known as master bench mark. The setting of points in the vertical direction is usually done with the help of following rods: 1. Boning rods and travelers 2. Sight Rails 3. Slope rails or batter boards 4. Profile boards SCE 1 Department of Civil Engineering